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Emotions & Stress
Two Factor Theory
Emotion =
body response
+ cognitive
interpretation
Theories of Emotion (Summary)
Components of Emotion
Expressive behavior
Physiological arousal
Conscious experience
Happiness
Our general happiness level is largely
unchanged by both very positive or very
negative events.
Does money create happiness?
College students’ attitude toward money
Does money buy happiness?
 Buying power has increased, but happiness remains
unchanged
What influences our happiness?
Adaptation - level phenomenon
Our tendency to judge items (income, grades,
sounds, lights) relative to a “neutral” (or
accustomed) level based on our prior
experience.
E.g. income
 temperature
Grades
What predicts happiness?
High self-esteem
Optimism
Having a satisfying marriage or close friends
Being happy in work and leisure
Religious faith
Enough sleep and exercise.
Emotions & Stress (Stress)
Stress response system fight or flight
 With stress, the body prepares for fight or flight
 Sympathetic nervous system reacts
Stress hormones released - Adrenaline
Heart rate and respiration increases
Blood diverted from digestion to skeletal muscles
Dulls pain
Releases sugar for energy
 Parasympathetic nervous system
Allows return to normal
Body’s General Adaptation Syndrome
(GAS)
Applies to all stress situations
Phase #1 = Alarm
Respiration increases
Temperature increases
Heart rate increases
Blood diverted to skeletal muscles
General Adaptation Syndrome
Phase #2 = Resistance
Hormones (e.g. adrenaline) increase
Phase #3 = Exhaustion
Tiredness, More vulnerable to illness
Mental breakdown
Possibly death
General Adaptation Syndrome
Does stress cause disease?
Widowed, divorced, or separated are more
vulnerable to disease
Stress weakens body’s defenses
More susceptible to
Bacterial infections
Viral infections - Including AIDS (from HIV)
spread through bodily fluids
Heart disease
Coping with stress (Summary)
Exercise
Biofeedback
Meditation
Social support
Aerobic exercise
Helps reduce
stress,
depression and
anxiety
Biofeedback
Can help people
relax by providing
information about
changes in muscle
tension & heart
rate.
Meditation (Relaxation)
Quiet time to relax and enjoy the tranquility
Reduces the bad effects of stress such as
headaches, hypertension, anxiety and
insomnia
Social Support
Being able to confide fears & frustrations to
close friends will reduce stress.
Happily married couples live longer
Are alternative medicines effective?
E.g. Acupuncture, massage therapy,
spiritual healing, herbal remedies,
aromatherapy.
The value of these remedies are often over
estimated due to:
Placebo effect
(You get what you expect)
Spontaneous remission
(The body cures itself)
What effects stress?
Does optimism effect stress?
Yes
Optimists perceive more control & cope
better with stress
Does hopelessness effect stress?
Does your personality effect stress?
Type “A” Personality
Hard driving, impatient, time sensitive, super
motivated, verbally aggressive and easily
angered
More prone to heart attacks
Type “B” Personality
Easy going and relaxed
Less prone to heart attacks
Does money effect stress?
Wealthy (more control) = longer life
Poor ( less control) = shorter life
Be careful about cause and effect
Wealthy can afford more health care and better
foods
Does having control stress?
Does control effect your reaction to
stress?
Rats receiving a shock (stress) with no control
developed ulcers
Rats that could turn off (control) the stress by
turning a wheel did not develop ulcers
Uncontrolled stress = ulcers