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IUCN Categories Summit
Almeria, Spain 7-11 May, 2007
Workshop Session II
Experience with Application of Specific Categories
Session 2: Categories III and IV
Jim Barborak
Thomas Brooks, Chair
Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend
Nigel Dudley
Abdellah El Mastour
Jordi Falgarona I Bosch
Arturo Lopez Ornat
Tony Turner
Ruano Vaisanen
Category III: the 1994 definition
• Areas managed mainly for conservation of
natural features (i.e. Natural Monument)
• Area containing one or more specific natural or
natural/cultural feature which is of outstanding or
unique value because of its inherent rarity,
representative or aesthetic qualities of cultural
• Primary management objectives are
“preservation of species and genetic diversity”,
“protection of specific natural/cultural features”,
and “tourism and recreation”
Category III: discussion
• Make this category less odd!
• PAs in this category should have a clear rationale for
how their specific ecosystem feature (e.g. caves,
waterfalls, serpentine formations, fossil beds, petrified
forests, volcanoes, sea-vents, etc) or cultural feature
(e.g. sacred groves, scenic attractions, etc) is related to
• Often but not necessarily small, often suitable for
education, research, outdoor recreation, economic
• In many cases will be nested within PA complexes of
other categories
• Obvious errors in application: individual Southern Right
Whales in Argentina
Category IV: the 1994 definition
• Conservation through active management (i.e.
habitat/species management area)
• Area of land and/or sea subject to active
intervention for management purposes so as to
ensure the maintenance of habitats and/or to
meet the requirements of specific species
• Primary management objectives are
“preservation of species and genetic diversity”
and “maintenance of environmental services”
Category IV: discussion
• Focus on species conservation or sustainable use
• Agreement that manipulation doesn’t have to be active,
although must have the ability to intervene if necessary
(e.g. “temporal zoning”, future response to climate
• More than “intervention”, which can occur in PAs of all
categories (e.g. invasive species removal)
• Importance in, e.g. protection of Alliance for Zero
Extinction sites
• Obvious errors in application: MPAs for fisheries
management (which should be Category VI)