Download Document 70780

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Island restoration wikipedia, lookup

Fauna of Africa wikipedia, lookup

Tropical rainforest wikipedia, lookup

Tropical Andes wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
CONSEIL PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL P O U R L’EXPLORATION D E LA MER
FORAMINIFERA
Zooplankton
Sheet 108
Families: Globigerinidae and
Globorotaliidae
(BY A.W. H. Bk)*
1967
* ) Lamont Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades,
New York. Contr. No. 982. This study received support from National
Science Foundation, Grant GB-42 19.
-2PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA
There are about 30 described species of planktonic Foraminifera living in the world oceans. They occur primarily in the euphotic zone. The
few deep water-species probably spend their earlier stages in near-surface waters. Most of the species (22) are tropical-subtropical; five are coldtemperate or subpolar species. Three species are found in Antarctic waters and of these one is also present in the Arctic Ocean. The IndoPacific fauna except for its greater species diversity, is essentially similar to that of the Atlantic.
(1962). The presence or absence of spines is a major
The classification and key used here agrees in most respects with that of PARKER
criterion in distinguishing the two families. The morphological terms in this key have been defined in a publication by BOLLI,LOEBLICH,
(1957).
and TAPPAN
Order FO-RIDA
Family Globigerinidae CARPENTER,
PARKER
and JONES, 1862
Description (after PARKER,
1962): Test trochospiral in the adult or in ontogeny, streptospiral,or globular; chambers spherical, ovate or clavate;
wall calcareous, perforate, radial in structure, hispid, spinose when living either in the adult or in ontogeny ; primary aperture umbilical,
umbilical-extraumbilical,equatorial or spiroumbilical; may have secondary apertures; may have bullae with accessory infralaminal apertures.
I927
Family Globorotaliidae CUSHMAN,
1962): Coiling of test trochospiral; chambers angular to ovate or spherical; may have a keel; wall
Description (emended from that of PARKER,
calcareous, perforate, radial in structure, smooth, pitted; non-spinose when living both in the adult and in ontogeny; primary aperture extraumbilical-umbilical or umbilical ;no secondary apertures.
KEY TO GENERA
1. Trochospiral test (spines simple, if present). ............................................................................
2
1. Planispiral test with triradiate spines (gerontic stage streptospiral) ................................................
Hastigerina
3
2. Primary aperture (and, if present, secondary apertures). ..................................................................
2. Sutural apertures,smooth surface ...............................................................................
Cana'eina
3. Non-spinose tests ............................................................................
4-6 Family Globorotaliidae
7-10 Family Globigerinidae
3. Spinosetests ................................................................................
4. Test with spherical or hemispherical chambers, umbilical aperture and rounded periphery.
5
4. Test with angular to ovate chambers; spiral side flat or gently curved; peripheral keel may be present; aperture a narrow slit from umbilicus to periphery. .......................................................................................
Globorotalia
5. Trochospiralcoilingthroughoutlife...................................................................................
6
5. Streptospiral coiling in adult. ...............................................................................
Pulleniatina
6. Hemispherical chambers with umbilical aperture; coarsely pitted surface texture; umbilical tooth.. .................. Globoquadrina
6. Spherical chambers and umbilical aperture frequently covered by bulla with infralaminal apertures; smooth surface texture Globigerinita
7. Primary aperture only ...............................................................................................
8
9
7. Primary aperture and one or more secondary apertures.. .................................................................
8. Aperture umbilical, chambers spherical to ovate. ...............................................................
Globigerina
8. Aperture from umbilicus to periphery; trochospiral in ontogeny becoming nearly planispiral in adult. ................. Globigerinella
9. Multi-chamberedtest ................................................................................................
10
9. One-chambered spherical test (juvenile stage is multi-chambered with secondary apertures) ...............................
Orbulina
10. Cancellate, honeycomb-like surface. .......................................................................
Globigerinoides
10. Pitted to smooth, translucent texture; chamber flanges. ......................................................
Sphaeroidint.lla
...................................
-3PLANISPIRAL-Triradiate
-SPINOSE-
SpinFTransparent Test-nHastigerinacc
3
4
5
6
7
Globigerina digitata
Globigerina quinqueloba
Globigerina pachyderma
Globigerina humilis
Globigerina falconensis
Globigerina bulloides
Globigerina calida
Globigerinella aequilateralis
-Globigerinella adamsi
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
7 I
*Globigerinitacc
LSutural Apertures
Very Smooth Test
Globigerinita glutinata
Globigerinita bradyi
18
19
Globoquadrina dutertrei
Globoquadrina conglomerata
Globoquadrina hexagona
Pulleniatina obliquiloculata
20
21
22
23
Globorotalia truncatulinoides
Globorotalia crassaformis
Globorotalia hirsuta
Globorotalia scitula
Globorotalia menardii
-Globorotalia tumida
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
-Globorotalia inflata
-Globorotaliidae
Figures
i
2
Orbulina universa
Globigerinoides conglobatus
Globigerinoides ruber
Globigerinoides sacculifer
Sphaeroidinella dehiscens
-Globigerina rubescens
Globigerinidae
~ G lbigerinacc
o
TROCHOSPIRAL
I
Hastigerina pelagica
Hastigerinella digitata
-acandeinacc-Candeina
nitida
31
In the Key overleaf species marked ** are commonly found in the northeastern Atlantic between 40°N and 65"N lat. and between 25OW long.
and Western Europe. Species marked * occur less commonly in this area.
Each species in the Key and in the diagram above is given a number and the same number is used in the figures, different views of the
name species being lettered a, b, c.
Unless otherwise marked all the bar scales (placed underneath the middle specimen) are 500 p.
References
BANNER,
F. T. and BLOW,W. H., 1960. Contr. Cushman Fdn
Foramin. Res., 11(1):1-41.
B%,A. W. H., 1959. Micropaleontology, 5( 1):77-100.
Bb, A. W. H., 1966. ))Distributionof planktonic Foraminifera
in the World Oceanscc. Abstracts of Papers, 2nd International Oceanographic Congress, Moscow 1966. p. 26.
BELYAEVA,
N. V., 1964. Trudy Inst. Okeanol., 68:12-83.
A. R., Jr. and TAPPAN,
H., 1957.
BOLLI,H. M., LOEBLICH,
Bull. U.S. Natn. Mu., 215:3-50.
BOLTOVSKOY,
E., 1964. Serv. Hidrogr. Naval, Argent., Publ.
H. 639: 1-54.
BRADSHAW,
J. S., 1959. Contr. Cushman Fdn Foramin. Res.,
lO(2) :25-64.
CIFELLI,R., 1965. Smithson. Misc. Collns, 148(4):1-35
(Publ. 4599).
PARKER,
F. L., 1962. Micropaleontology, 8(2):219-254.
SCHOTT,
W., 1935. Wiss. Ergebn. dt. atlant. Exped.
,Meteorcc, 3(3) :43-134.
Key to Species
Test
Species
*Hastigerina pdagica
(d'orbigny)
Hastigerineiia digitata
(mumbler)
*&bulina unimsa
d'Orhigny
Outline
Dominant
Coiling
Direction
(spiral
side)
Chambers
Smooth
Trochospiral
in juvenile;
spherical in
adult
spinose
> I mm
4 in juvenih
Spherical
Equatorial
Truadiatt
spines
Transparent test, triradiate spines
Subtropical, tropical
6
Bifurcate or
trifurcate in
adult
Equatorial
becoming
spiroumbilical
Triradiatc
spines
Transparent test, triradiate spines,
horn-like chambers
Subtropical, tropical
below 500 m depth
4-5 in juvenile; 1 in
adult
Spherical
Umbilical
in juvenile;
none in
adult
One (in
earlier
spinose
S i l e spherical chamber
Tropical, subtropical
3
u p to
- 1 mm
Trochospiral
nearly
spherical
Left+Right
Coarsely
spinow
- I mm
Globigerinoides ruber
d'orbigny
Trochospiral
Left+Right
Coarsely
spinw
-0.6 mm
Globigerinoides sacculifer
(Brady) [=Globigerinoiah trib6u.r (Reuss)]
Trochospiral
ovate
Left+Right
spinose,
honeycomb
texture
>Sphaeroidineila dehkctns
(Parker and Jones)u
a terminal form of
Gbbigerimides soccul~m
(Brady)
Trochospual
ovate
Left+Right
Secondar
apeper
chamber
Globigm'na rubercm
Hofker
Trochospiral
Left+Right
Spinose
Hiapid
Globigerina digirala Brady
Trochospiral
Left+Right
spinose
HLpid
**Globigarina quinqueloba
Natland
Trochospiral
compressed
kft+Right
Spinose;
smooth
'"Globigm'na pachyderma
rrochospiral
compact
Left Right
character9
Stages
dY)
5-6 in
juvenile;
4 in adult
Spherical
becoming
compreved
Umbilical
Two
Spinose
Two secondary apertures per
chamber; primary aperture over 3
chambers; round outline
Tropical, subtropical
aurface watua
4
5 in juvenile
3 in adult
Spherical
Umbilical
Two
spinose
P d to red pigment; two secondaq
apertures per chamber; primary
aperture over two chambers
Tropical, subtropical
surface waters
5
6 7 in
Spherical;
last chambel
often
elongate and
compruscd
Umbilical
One
spinose
Sac-like final chamber (if present) ;
one secondary and one primary
aperture per chamber; honeycomb
texture; primary aperture over
three chambers
Dominant species in
tropical surface water;
common also in subtropical regiom
6
4 in adult
Spherical
with
chamber
flanges
Umbilical
(obscured)
Spinose in
One
(concealed: juvenile;
nonspinw in
adult
Great wall thickening producing
smooth, glassy layer; chamber
flanges coalesce and obscure
apertures
Tropical, subtropical
below 500 m depth
7
-0.25mm
5 in juvenile
4 in adult
Spherical
Umbilical
spinose
Light orangepink pigment in test
Tropical, subtropical
surface waters
8
-0.65mm
4-5 in
iuvenile;
4-6 in adult
Spherical in
juvenile;
digitate in
adult
Umbilical
spiroumbilical in
adult
spinose
Digitate final [email protected])
Tropical, subtropical
9
5-6 in
Hemispherical to ovate
flaplike fina
chamber
Umbilical;
sometimes
modified
into infralaminal
apertures
spinose
Final &amber a lobed extension
over umbilicus, hut not always
present
Subarctic and subantarctic cold-temperate surface waters; left-coilii
population in colder
waten
Spherical
becoming
subquadrate
Umbilical
becoming
utra-umbilical;dktinct
lip
May be
present in
iuvenile;
absent in
adult
Subquadrate, coarse-crystaline
compact test; aperture is a narrow
slit with distinct lip
Left-coiling in sub-polar;
right-coiling in coldtemperate waters
-
1.3 mm
-
1.3 mm
juvenile;
4 in adult
-
coarse
Figs.
Primary
aperture
position
Gbbigm'm'ahconglo6ahrs (Brady)
(Ehrenberg)
Distribution
Shape
5mm
Smooth to
pitted
Diagnostic
Number
per
whorl
6 in adult
Planispiral
Streptospiral
spies
Maximum
length
Texture
Smooth
Planispiral
Apertures
-
0.27-
-
0.47mm
juvenile and
adult
5 in juvenile
4 in adult
10
rrochospiral
2ompressed
rochospiral
,ecoming
iearly
kmispiral
rrochospiral
,ecoming
treptospiral
Globoquadrina conglomraia
(Schwager)
Ghboquadrina hexagona
(Natland)
Pulhiatina obliquiloculata
(Parker and Jones)
Light mostly
xft+Right
kft+Rigbt
tight mostly
Keel is absent in all species listed on these two pages.
rrochospiral
*Globoquadrina dutertrci
(d'0:bigny) (= Ghbigcrina
cggcrr Rhumbler)
Rft+Right
Left+Right
Trochospiral
Trochospiral
Left+Right
Ghbigcrinita brad$
Wiesner [= Ghbigcrinita
uvula (Ebrenbeg)]
Globigcrinella adami
(Banner and Blow)
LeftfRight
Left+Right
Left+Right
Left+Right
Left+Right
Trochospiral
becoming
nearly
planispiral
Trochospira'
becoming
nearly
planispiral
* Globigcrinella aequilatcralir
(Bra49
[= Ghbigm'nella siphomfcra
(d'orbigny)]
Trochospiral
Trochospira
Trochospira
Globigcrina calida Parker
**Ghbigcrina klhi&s
d'Orbigny
Ghbigmha falconmrir
Blow
Trochospira
compressed
'itted in
uvenile;
zry smooth
n adult
Zoarse,
itted
Zoarse,
itted
202itted
Smooth
iinely hispid
Smooth
Enely hispic
Spinose
hispid
Spinose
hispid
Spinose
bispid
Spinose
hispid
Spinose
hispid
Spinose
smooth
1.48mm
0.9 mm
0.8 mm
0.8 mm
0.19mm
0.48mm
' 0.8 mm
0.58mm
0.86mm
0.68mm
*
-
9
-
-
-0.43mm
"0.21 mm
M in
uvenile;
I yZ in adult
Iemispher:al, later
verlapping
arlier
hamben
Cal
Iemispher-
Cal
5 in juvenile
i4 in adult
3emispher-
1 in adult
3emisphercal
Spherical
Spherical
Spherical
becoming
radially
:longate
Spherical
Spherical
becoming
elongate
Spherical
Spherical
to ovate
Hemispher.
ical to
ovate; flap
like final
chamber
5 in juvenile
50r6in
iuvenile;
+6 in adult
5 in juvenile
4 in adult
5 in juvenilt
4 in adult
5 in juvenilc
5-7 in adult
5 in juvenil<
5-6 in adult
5 in juvenili
4 6 in adull
5 in juvenili
4 in adult
5 in juvenil
4 in adult
5-6 in
juvenile;
6-8in aduli
Jmbilical
Iecoming
xtra
imbilical
Jmbilical
)ecom ing
'xtra umbiical with
00th
00th
Jmbilical
with
unbilical
00th
Umbilical
Nith
imbilical
Umbilical
sometimes
modified
nto infraaminal
spertures
Umbilical,
sometimes
modified
into infralaminal
apertures
Umbilical
becoming
interiomarginal
equatorial
Equatorial,
interiomarginal
arch
Umbilical
becoming
extra-umbilical
Umbilical
Umhilical
with lip
Umbilical;
sometimes
modified
into infralaminal
apertures
jpinose
jpinose
3pinose
Spinose
Spinose
Spinose
Ntreptospiral,right-coiling;
,ighlypolished test with
rescent-shaped aperture;
ivenile resembles Globoquadrina
utcrtrci
ion-spinose, pitted wall;
unbilical tooth; compressed test
vith apertural and spiral sides
lepressed
(on-spinose, pitted wall;
unbdical tooth; 4 chambers in last
vhorl of adult
'Ion-spinose, pitted wall;
unbilical tooth; predominantly
ight-coiling
3ulla and infralaminal apertures;
ligh spire and numerous chamben
Bulla and infralaminal apertures;
imooth test
Radially elongate, pointed final
:hamhers
Nearly planispiral test
Elongate final chambers, highly
arched aperture, intergrades with
Globigcrina Alloidcs and
Globigcrinella aequilatcralis
Large, high-arched aperture
Resembles Globigcrina bulloidcs
but has more elongate chambers,
low arched aperture with lip and
smaller test
Six to eight chambers per whorl
and bulla-lie final chamber
.ropical, subtropical;
.bundant in November in
ubtropical North Atlantic
rropical, subtropical in
'acific and Indian Oceans
lnly
rropical Pacific and
ndian Oceans only
rropical, subtropical
Subpolar and coldemperate
Subpolar to tropical
IdY
Subtropical, tropical in
[ndian and Pacific Oceans
hbtropical, tropical
Subtropical, tropical
Subpolar, cold-temperate
Cold-temperate and
iubtropical
Subtropical to subpolar
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
Smooth in
juvenile,
becoming
hispid
Smooth in
juvenile;
coarsely
hispid at
aperture bas
Smooth in
juvenile;
coarsely
crystallie
in adult
;eft+Right
Left mostly
Left mostly
Compressed
trochospiral
biconvex
Compressed
trochospiral
subcircular
outline
Compressed
trochospiral
elongate
oval outline
Globorotalia scitula
(Brady)
Globorotalia menardii
(d'orbigny)
[= Globmotalianrltrata
(d'orbigny)]
Spines are absent in all species listed on thii page.
tight mostly
Very smooth
Coarsely
hispid
tight mostly
Compressed
trochospiral;
biconvex or
apertural
side flat
Globorotalia hirnrta
(d'orbigny)
-
Smooth to
hispid
Left mostly
Trochospiral
planoconvex
Globorolalia crarsaformis
(Galloway and Wissler)
[= Globorotalia punchdata
(d'orbigny)]
Trochospiral
Smooth to
hispid
&+Right
Trochospiral
conical
*Globorotdia tnmcatulinoidcs
(d'orbigny)
Cdeina nitida
d'Orbigny
Smooth;
crystalline
at apertural
base
Left mostly
Trochospiral;
flat spiral
side; inflated
apertural
side
Texture
"Gbborotdia inj7ata
(d'orbigny)
Dominant
Coiling
Direction
(spiral
side)
Test
mm
0.66 mm
1.0 mm
1.4 mm
0.76 mm
-
-
1.5 mm
,.
-
-
- 0.65
.,0.9 mm
0.65 mm
-
Maximum
length
Inflated,
hemispherical
Shape
4 in juvenile
3 in adult
5-6 in adult
5-6 in adult
5 - 6 in
juvenile
and adult
4-5 in adult
5-6 in
iuvenile;
4-5 in adult
Spherical
Angular
rhomboid
Angular
rhomboid
And?
rhomboid
Angular
rhomboid
Angular
conical
5 in juvenile; Angular
5-6 in adult
conical
5 in juvenile;
I. in adult
Number
per
whorl
Chambers
Umbilical
but absent
in adult
Elongate
from
umbilicus to
periphery,
with lip
Elongate
from
umbilicus to
periphery,
with lip
Elongate
from
umbilicus to
periphery,
with lip
Elongate
from
umbilicus to
periphery,
with lip
Elongate
from
umbilicus to
periphery,
with lip
Elongate
from
umbilicus to
periphery,
with lip
Large;
umbilical to
extra
umbilical
Primary
aperture
position
ktural
ipertures
-
Secondar
apertures
per
chamber
Apertures
Key to Species
Welldeveloped
keel
keel
Welldeveloped
Absent or
obscure
Obscure i:
juvenile;
thin in
adult
Obscure,
thin keel
Wellieveloped
keel
Keel
Multiple sutural apertures between
all chambers; very smooth
globular test
Elongate oval outline and higher
spire than Cloborotalia menardii;
test often greatly thickened
Rounded, moderately lobulate
periphery; diffen from
Globmotalia tum'da in flatter and
subcircular, thinner test
More rounded periphery and
smoother test than Globorotalia
hirsuta
More lobulate periphery and fewer
chambers than Globorolalia
scitula; right-coiling mostly
Differs from Globmotaliainflata in
its slit-like aperture and angular
periphery; differs from GbborotlJia
hirsuta in its convex apertural side
and flat spiral side
conical test
Large aperture, rounded periphery;
left-coiling and smooth test
Diagnostic
Characters
Tropical, subtropical
surface waters
Tropical, subtropical
Tropical, subtropical
Subpolar to equatorial
especially below 500 m
Subtropical, especially in
winter
Subtropical, often below
300 m
Subtropical, especially
abundant between
December and March in
Sargasso Sea; distinct
provinces of left- andrightcoiling populations in
Atlantic and Pacific
Cold-temperate regions
between subpolar and
subtropical; in winter in
subtropics
Distribution
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Ih
7a
7c
2so)l
9b
9a
@
Q
l25y
I2a
12b
-
13a
Il a
15a
1'7'a
I3c
I 5b
I5c
I
Ilb
I Ic
I le
I If
-
I2c
13b
I
I
Io c
\
9c
Ild
t6b
16a
17b
I
I7c
Unless otherwise marked, all the bar scales (placed underneath the middle specimen) are 500y.
I
18a
18b
I8c
I
2sop
~
19a
19 b
19c
Id
20a
20 b
20c
21c
250p
U
22a
22 b
22c
23 c
23a
24 a
26a
30a
26b
30 b
26c
28c
29a
29 b
29c
30c
3 la
31 b
31c
jades,
tional
NO. 25 - SIIb
DISTRIBUTION OF PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA
IN THE WORLD OCEANS
BB A l l a n W.H.
Lamont Geolopical Observatory
of Columbia University,
Palisades, New York, U S A
There are about 30 species of planktonic Foraminifera living in the
world oceans, and they can be grouped into three major distributional zones - a warm-water belt between approximately 40" N and 40" S Latitudes,
which divides the northern cold-water region from its southern counterpart.
The bipolar nature ol the species distributions is evident from the striking
similarity of the foraminiferal faunas in reciprocal latitudinal zones between
the northern and southern hemispheres.
The majority of the species (22) belong to the warm-water province.
Its faunal diversity suggests that here evolution proceeded more rapidly
than in the colder areas. The warm-water species can be grouped into (a)
the Equatorial or Tropical species (e. g.,. Globigerinoides sacculifer, Globorotalia menardii, Globoquadrina dutertrei, Pulleniatina o bliquiloculata, and
Globorotalia tumida), which are transported to mid-latitudes via the warm
currents (Gulf Stream, Kuroshio Currents, etc.) along the eastern margins
t
of the continents; and (b) the Central-water or Subtropical species (e. g.,
Globorotalia hirsuta, G. truncatulinoides and Hastigerina pelagica) which
occur in the central oligotrophic areas of the oceans. Some species (Glohigerinoides ruber, Globigerinella aequilateralis and Orbulina universa)
occur abundantly in both tropical as well as subtropical waters. The seasonal succession of these foraminiferal assemblages was documented in the
the Sargasso Sea off Bermuda from plankton tows collected biweekly between 1958 and 1962.
There are a t least three warm-water species that occur in the Indo-Pacific region, but which are no longer present in the Atlantic Ocean. They
are Globoquadrina hexagona, G. conglomerata and Globigerinella adamsi.
The former two species are known from Pleistocene deep-sea sediments, but
they have apparently disappeared since from the Atlantic.
The cold-water fauna can be divided into Subpolar species (Globigerina
quinqueloba, right-coiling G. pachyderma, G. bulloides sensu strict0 and
Globigerinita bradyi) and a single Polar species (left-coiling G. pachyderma). The bipolarity in the faunal zonations is clearly observed in the
distributional patterns of the coiling directions of G. pachyderma and
G. truncatulinoides in the North and South Atlantic.
The two transitional zones between the warm-water and cold-water fau, nas are characterized by the prolific occurrence of Globorotalia inflata. Its
distribution is generally limited to the middle latitudes, with the exception
of incursions equator-ward along the western margins of continents, where
upwelling takes place.
Planktonic Foraminifera apparently spend their earlier stages in the enphotic zone and later descend to deeper depths. Life a t great depths is accompanied by considerable shell thickening in most species which is estimated
to add about 5O0/o or more CaCOa by weight to the foraminiferal test (e. g.,
. Globorotalia menardii, G. truncatulinoides, Globigerinoides sacculifer d3.dehiscens))). Some species such as Globorotalia crassaformis, G. scitula,
and Hastigerinella digitata appear to be truly meso- or bathypelagic. The
spinose species are generally epipelagic, whereas the non-spinose ones exhibit a great range in depth habitats.
26
From:
Abstracts of Papers, Second Intern. Oceanogr. Congr.,
Publ. House "Nauka'l, Moscow, 1966.