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Answers to Homework 4 due 2/28/02 Nilpotent groups Lemma 8.10 Any finite product of nilpotent groups is nilpotent. HW4.ex01: Prove this lemma (in your own words) and discuss the question: Is this true for infinite products? Ans: [by Georgi] It is enough to show that the product of two nilpotent groups is nilpotent. So suppose that G and H are nilpotent of class a, b resp. Let c = max(a, b). Then Z c (G) = G and Z c (H) = H and we claim that Z c (G × H) = Z c (G) × Z c (H) = G × H. This follows from the following lemma. Lemma 4.1. Z i (G × H) = Z i (G) × Z i (H) for any groups G, H. Proof. Since [(g, h), (x, y)] = ([g, x], [h, y]), (g, h) is central in G × H iff g is central in G and h is central in H, i.e., Z(G × H) = Z(G) × Z(H). Thus the lemma holds for i = 1. If the lemma hold for i then G×H G×H G H = = × Z i (G × H) Z i (G) × Z i (H) Z i (G) Z i (H) which has center µ ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶ G G H H Z i+1 (G) Z i+1 (H) Z × =Z ×Z = × Z i (G) Z i (H) Z i (G) Z i (H) Z i (G) Z i (H) so Z i+1 (G × H) = Z i+1 (G) × Z i+1 (H). Q In the case of an infinite product, if Gi is a nilpotent group of class i then Gi is not nilpotent since Y Y Y Z k ( Gi ) = Z k (Gi ) 6= Gi since it doesn’t contain Gk+1 . HW4.ex02: (6.45 in Rotman 1st ed.)[Wielandt] A finite group G is nilpotent iff every maximal subgroup is normal. Ans: If G is not nilpotent then there must be a nonnormal Sylow subgroup P . This means that N (P ) 6= G. Then any maximal subgroup containing N (P ) cannot be normal. Since every subgroup of G containing N (P ) is selfnormalizing. Conversely, if G is nilpotent then the Sylow subgroups Q Pi are all normal and every maximal subgroup of G has the form N × i6=j Pi where N < Pj is maximal. But we proved that maximal subgroups of p-groups are normal (with factor group Z/p). 1 Automorphisms HW4.ex03: (7.11 in Rotman 4th ed) If G is a finite group and Aut(G) acts transitively1 on the set G − {1} then G is elementary abelian. Ans: First we claim that every nontrivial element of G has order p for some fixed prime p. To see this let p be any prime dividing |G|. By Cauchy G has an element g 6= 1 of order p. If h is another nontrivial element of G then there is an automorphism φ of G so that φ(g) = h. Thus o(h) = o(g) = p. Now we just have to prove that G is abelian. Since G is a p-group it has a nontrivial center Z(G). But Z(G) is characteristic so φ(Z(G)) = Z(G) for all φ ∈ Aut(G). If Z(G) < G then the automorphisms of G could not send the elements of Z(G) to the elements of G − Z(G). This would be a contradiction. Thus G = Z(G) is abelian. Since every nontrivial element has order p it is elementary abelian. HW4.ex04: (7.15 in Rotman 4th ed) Show that Aut(D8 ) ∼ = D8 but D8 is not complete. Ans: Since D8 = hs, t|s4 , t2 , ststi has a central element s2 , it is not complete. To find Aut(D8 ) we look at the 8 elements of D8 . (We are using the newer notation from the 4th ed of Rotman: D2n is the dihedral group of order 2n.) D8 = {1, s, s3 , s2 , t, ts, ts2 , ts3 } Of these only s, s3 have order 4 and t, ts, ts2 , ts3 are noncentral of order 2. Thus there are at most 2 × 4 = 8 automorphisms φ of D8 since φ(s) = s, s3 has only two choices and φ(t) = tsi has 4 choices. Georgi and Anish point out that D16 = ha, b|a4 , b2 , ababi has a subgroup ha2 , bi isomorphic to D8 . Since the index is 2 this subgroup is normal so D8 C D16 . The conjugation action gives a homomorphism φ : D16 → Aut(D8 ) The kernel of φ is the centralizer of D8 in D16 . This is {1, a4 } since these are the only elements of D16 which commute with both b and a2 . Thus D16 Aut(D8 ) ∼ = 4 ∼ = D8 ha i since there is an epimorphism ψ : D16 → D8 with kernel ha4 i given by ψ(a) = s, ψ(b) = t. Semidirect Products HW4.ex05: Prove that Q (the quaternion group of order 8) is not a semidirect product of Z/4 by Z/2. 1 G acts transitively on X if for any x, y ∈ X there is a g ∈ G so that gx = y 2 Ans. Q cannot be a semidirect product because it has only one element of order 2. [If Q were a semidirect product of A and B it would have complementary subgroups isomorphic to A and B. But every nontrivial 2-group has an element of order 2 by Cauchy’s theorem so Q would have at least two elements of order 2.] HW4.ex06: (7.20 in Rotman 4th ed) If G is complete prove that Hol(G) ∼ = G × G. Ans: Since G is complete, we have an isomorphism: φ : G → Aut(G) sending g ∈ G to the inner automorphism φg . Thus the holomorph of G is the semidirect product G o Aut(G) = G o G with multiplication given by: (a, g)(b, h) = (aφg (b), gh) = (agbg −1 , gh). ≈ An isomorphism ψ : G × G − → G o G is given by ψ(a, g) = (ag −1 , g). This is obviously a bijection and it is easy to verify that it is a homomorphism: ψ(a, g)ψ(b, h) = (ag −1 , g)(bh−1 , h) = (ag −1 gbh−1 g −1 , gh) = ψ(ab, gh) OK, so that is the proof but how did I get the equation for ψ? My method was to look for two commuting normal subgroups of G o G which are isomorphic to G. One such subgroup is G o 1 C G o G. The other subgroup must consist of elements (g, h) which commute with all elements of G o 1: (a, 1)(g, h) = (g, h)(a, 1) (ag, h) = (ghah−1 , h) In other words a = ghah−1 g −1 which holds if gh = 1. So g = h−1 and H = {(h−1 , h)}. The isomorphism with G is given by projection to the second factor so I guessed that ψ(g, h) = (g, 1)(h−1 , h) = (gh−1 , h). Note that the computation (in black above) is still needed to verify that this is a homomorphism. The argument in red assumes that the result is true. 3