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Influence & Leadership Define Power and Influence Power is the ability to bring about change in one’s psychological environment. Influence is the use of power to bring about change Influence is the ability to get others to freely endorse or embrace your ideas and initiatives Zones of Influence Direct Control Indirect Control No Influence Steps to Influencing Clarify your goals and priorities Identify stakeholders in the situation that you need to influence Analyze your “base of influencing” with each stakeholder Identify the strategy to be used Identify Stakeholders Supporters Blockers Active Champion Resistor Passive Silent Booster Avoider An influence model for leadership Leader Behavior Follower Responses Power and Influence Tactics Commitment, Compliance, Resistance Leader characteristics Style End Result Group effectiveness Follower Performance Follower satisfaction Nine influence tactics likely to be relevant to a manager’s effectiveness Rational Persuasion Inspirational appeal Consultation Ingratiation Exchange Personal Appeal Coalition Legitimating Pressure Influence Tactics Inspiration - making a request or proposal that inspires enthusiasm by appealing to a target’s values, ideals, and aspirations, or increasing the target’s confidence that he or she can do the requested task. Consultation – seeking a target’s participation in planning a strategy, activity, or change for which the target’s support and assistance are desired, or modifying a proposal to deal with the target’s concerns and suggestions. Influence Tactics Rational Persuasion - Using logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade a target that a proposal or request is worthwhile. Ingratiation – Attempting to put a target in a good mood or to think favorably or you before making a request. Personal Appeal – Appealing to the target’s feelings of loyalty and friendship to influence the target to do something unusual or extra as a special favor. Influence Tactics Exchange – Influencing a target to do something in exchange for a special favor or benefit. Pressure – Using demands, threats, frequent checking, or persistent reminders in an attempt to influence a target to carry out a request. Influence Tactics Legitimizing – Seeking to establish the legitimacy of a request by claiming the authority to make it or by verifying that it is consistent with organizational policies, rules or traditions. Coalition – Enlisting the aid or endorsement of other people to influence target to do what you want. How is the effectiveness of a tactic determined? Is it consistent with social norms and role expectations Does leader have approprited power base Will tactics influence followers’ attitude The leader’s skill in using tactic How much built in resistance because of the nature of the request Effectiveness of Influence Strategies Source Resistance Compliance Commitment Legitimizing Inspiration Rational Persuasion Consultation Ingratiation Personal Appeal Exchange Pressure Consequences for Managers of Using Single Influence Tactics, Academy of Management Journal, 1992 Effectiveness of Influence Strategies Source Resistance Compliance Commitment Inspiration 0% 10% 90% Consultation 18% 27% 55% Rational Persuasion 47% 30% 3% Ingratiation 41% 28% 31% Personal Appeal 25% 33% 41% Exchange 24% 41% 3% Pressure 56% 41% 0% Legitimizing 44% 56% 0% Consequences for Managers of Using Single Influence Tactics, Academy of Management Journal, 1992 THE WORK OF LEADERSHIP Assignment – How can a leader establish a context for change or create one? What are some of the conflicts that organizations deal with that are reflected in competing or seemingly competing values, norms or goals and how can a leader deal with them? Discuss the leaders roles in letting an organization feel pressure and stress vs. trying to minimize or eliminate it? How do leaders get conflict out in the open without losing trust of employees? How do leaders get workers to take responsibility for actions and decisions instead of waiting to be told what to do or just bringing the problem to the leader? Discuss leadership as learning – what does this mean and how can you manage this when the organization demands results?