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The Basic Structure of Japanese Verbs 名前：＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿１の＿＿ (Yookoso! textbook pages 181-183) Informational Reading and Guided Practice 1. In Chapter 2, you learne dhow to conjugate (change the form of ) adjectives to form the negative. Look at the below chart and examples. Fill in the conjugates based on which type of adjective you see. Type of Adjective い－adj な－adj English Japanese Negative form* big 大きい 大きくない・大きくありません small 小さい 小さ＿＿＿＿＿＿・小さ＿＿＿＿＿＿＿ loud うるさい うるさ＿＿＿＿＿＿＿・うるさ＿＿＿＿＿＿ quiet しずかな しずかじゃない・しずかじゃありません clean きれいな きれい＿＿＿＿＿＿・きれい＿＿＿＿＿＿＿ ハンサムな ハンサム＿＿＿＿＿＿・ハンサム＿＿＿＿＿＿ handsome *That was review, by the way. Please make sure that you understand the above forms. 2. You have already studied several Japanese verbs, including ききます (listen) はなします (speak) あいます (meet) あります (exist), etc. The verbs here end in ます because these are the polite forms of these verbs. However, in order to look up any of these verbs (or more importantly other verbs) in a Japanese dictionary, you need to know the verb’s dictionary form, which is listed in the following chart. Each dictionary form consists of two parts, a root and an ending. Polite Form CLASS 1 Dictionary Form Meaning Root Ending き 聞く to listen 聞 き く あ 会う to meet 会 あ う はな す あ る よ む 聞きます 会います はな はな 話す to speak あ 有る to exist 有 よ 読む to read 読 食べる to eat 食べ ね 寝る to go to sleep 寝 み 見る to see 見 き 着る to wear 着 起きる to wake up 起き 話します 有ります 読みます 話 CLASS 2 た 食べます 寝ます 見ます 着ます お 起きます た る る み る き る お ね る 3. Notice the different endings between the two groupings of verbs. The ending of the first group is variable, while the second group is always る. In this textbook (and commonly), the first group of verbs are called CLASS 1 verbs, while the second group of verbs are called CLASS 2 verbs. The simple (but not fool proof) rule for distinguishing between these two classes is this: if the root of a verb ends with a syllable from the い-column of the hiragana syllabary chart (i-column: い、き、し、ち、etc) or the えcolumn (e-column: え、け、せ、て、etc) + る, then it is a CLASS 2 verb. Otherwise, it is a CLASS 1 verb. CLASS 2 verbs あ い う た お べ 食 お 起 え ＋る 見 み ＋る き ＋る 食べる to eat 見る to look/watch 起きる to wake up 4. The dictionary form of all CLASS 1 verbs ends in one of the syllables in the う-column of the hiragana syllabary chart. (NOTE that ある ends in る, but its root does not end in a syllable from the い-column nor the え-column, so it is not a CLASS 2 verb. CLASS 1 verbs あ い う え お あ 会 う (あ row) く (か row) す (さ row) つ (た row) む (ま row) る (ら row) ぐ (が row) to meet か 書 to write はな 話 to speak た 立 to stand よ 読 to read あ to exist およ 泳 to swim く 5. In addition, there are two irregular verbs in Japanese 来る (to come) and する (to do). In this textbook (and commonly) these irregular verbs are called CLASS 3 verbs. You will have to memorize the conjugation of these verbs individually. ALL compound verbs with する belong to CLASS 3: うんどうする (to exercise), でんわ する (to make a phone call), れんしゅう する (to practice), and so on. Here are how some common verbs are classified: CLASS 1 あら 洗う to wash い 行く to go き 聞く to listen はな 話す to speak の 飲む to drink はたら 働 く to work やす 休む to rest CLASS 2 た 食べる to eat お 起きる to wake up CLASS 3 する to do く 来る to come で 出かける to go out で 出る to leave/exit か 変える to change み 見る to see; watch き 着る to wear; put on の 乗る to ride 6. The three primary meanings expressed in every Japanese verb form are tense, politeness, and affirmation/negation. Tense There are two basic tenses in Japanese: past and nonpast. The past tense is used to express past actions and events (I played baseball, He remained in the hospital, etc). The nonpast tense is used to express present, habitual, and future actions and events (I get up at 6:00 every morning, I will go to school later, I’m going to study tomorrow, etc). Politeness Japanese verbs also take different forms depending on the degree of politeness the speaker or writer wishes to show the listener or reader. As you’ve been learning, polite form is used to address people with whom one is not well acquainted or to speak impersonally with in-group people (such as one’s superior). In addition, it is used to address most out-group people, in personal letters, TV news, and most public speeches. The polite form is the appropriate speech register among adult speakers who are getting to know each other. On the other hand, plain form is used when speakers address very familiar people on the same social level, such as close friends. It is also used in diaries and in newspaper articles. And as you will see later, verbs in certain positions in a sentence must be in the plain form. Affirmation/Negation In Japanese, verbs take different endings depending on whether they are affirmative or negative. In addition, different grammatical elements are added to the end of verb forms to express such meanings as ability and probability. The resultant forms consisting of verbs and grammatical elements also conjugate in terms of the three primary meanings (tense, politeness, and affirmation/negation).