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Most animals in lakes tend to exhibit grouped distribution patterns, likely due to both the benefits
of hunting together, and the protection offered by being part of a large group.
For example:
Most species of fish swim in schools in order to benefit from the proximity of their fellows in the
ways listed above, and to, theoretically, decrease power exerted on the individual by the current
and friction by distributing it among the group, similar to how geese conserve their energy by
flying in v’s
Jellyfish tend to huddle together in order to discourage predators
Most lrge fish do not obey this rule, as they are unable to survive in groups due to their size. An
example of this is the arapaima, one of the largest fish in the world. Their distribution is closest
to random, because bigger fish need more territory, so in an ecosystem with different sized
arapaima, you would need a seemingly random distribution.
I couldn’t resist, these fish don’t live in lakes, but they are awesome, and some find their way
into lakes from time to time.
2. Limiting Factors include:
Size of the lake
Food sources inside
Productivity of plant life
Amounts of nitrogen, carbon, etc.
Pollution/lake condition
3. K- Brook Trout: lay hundreds of eggs, if lucky, a forth of them survive
K- The Northern Water Snake can lay up to forty eggs.
K- Female bullfrogs lay about 20,000 eggs on the water’s surface. Most are eaten by fish and other aquatic
4. Commensalism is a relationship between two species where one species derives a benefit from
the relationship and the second species is unaffected by it.
Ex: Barnacles live on various life without harming it.
Mutualism is a biological interaction that is beneficial to both parties. Most species that have this
relationship can live apart, however, some have become so adapted to the other organism that it
needs it to survive.
Ex: The bacteria found in the intestines of any animal species in the lake. It helps digest the
organism’s food while getting food itself.
Parasitism is the relationship between two species of plants or animals in which one benefits at
the expense of the other, sometimes without killing it.
Ex: Leeches on other lake species, such as fish.
Batesian mimicry- a type of mimicry when an animal mimics another, noxious or dangerous
animal with a distinctive coloration or marking. The mimic is thus protected because the
predators who would otherwise eat it confuse it with the other species.
Ex. Water moccasin and the Bull snake
Cryptic coloration- coloration that allows an organism to blend in with its surroundings. The
organism then benefits because it either becomes less obvious to predators, or because its prey is
less likely to notice it.
Ex. Most fish, especially bottom feeders, are colored to help them blend in with their murky
Deceptive markings- markings that make the animal appear to be bigger, or cause it to be
confusing, to distract or scare away other animals.(predators)
Ex. Jellyfish, who’s tentacles make the fish appear much bigger and who clump together in large
“jellyfish fields”, which also makes them appear to be larger.
Mullerian mimicry- When two harmful(poisonous) creatures who are not closely related, but
share a common predator, come to mimic each others warning signals.
Ex. Again, jellyfish.