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Introduction to World Music Dr. Tamara Livingston http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~tlivings/worldmusic. htm Course Goals • Think critically about music • Be able to see music as more than “just entertainment” • Understand how music means; how is musical meaning created? • Develop respect for the significance of non-Western music systems in their respective cultures Ethnomusicology • The study of music in culture (cultural context); the study of music as culture. – Sounds – Concepts – Behaviors Defining the Issues • “Music” or “Musics” – Music systems: is Western Art Music one or many music systems? • Universality vs. Differences – Universal language vs. “personal” music • Defining Music • Politics of Music (musical meaning and discord) (exs. Wagner in Israel; Mozart in Berlin) Music Examples • • • • Is it “music”? What can we say about it? What does it mean? How does it mean? (what other information might we need before addressing this?) Defining Music • Soundscape – the characteristic sounds of a particular place, both human and nonhuman – R. Murray Schafer (Canadian composer) • Music is … “sound that is humanly patterned or organized” – J. Blacking (British ethnomusicologist) • Music-culture – the way of life of a people, learned and transmitted from generation to generation, as it relates to music. Culture • “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” – E.B. Tyler (anthropologist) Elements of a Musical Performance MUSIC PERFORMERS AUDIENCE TIME AND SPACE A Music-Culture Model AFFECTIVE EXPERIENCE PERFORMANCE COMMUNITY MEMORY/HISTORY Another Music-Culture Model SOUND: Melody Rhythm and Meter Texture Form CONCEPT BEHAVIOR Aesthetics Ethos Theory Meanings Repertoires Identity History How music is produced Who produces it Who participates Ritual Rules Audience/Performer interaction Movement Thinking / Writing About Music • Why do we need music-culture models? Isn’t music analysis all that is needed? • Why do ethnomusicologists seem to be more interested in cultural aspects rather than the “music itself”? Description and Theory • Description of musical practice includes: Face-to-face observation and participation; insider interviews; fieldwork (immersion in a music-culture) • Theoretical analysis: attempts to ground the “what” in the “why” by linking description to meaning within a cultural context; Ethnomusicological Theories • Cultural Evolutionism and Diffusionism (Comparative) • Structural-Functional Approaches • Linguistic Approaches • Marxist Approaches • Performance Theory • Gender, Ethnicity and Identity Approaches • Postmodernism, Postcolonialism, and Globalism Analysis Example • Gilberto Gil (Brazilian Singer/Songwriter), from “The Spirit of Samba: The Black Music of Brazil,” Jeremy Marre.