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Biology 450: Fish Week
Lecture 3:
What kind of
fish are there
in Oregon?
Scott Heppell
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife
Oregon State University
042 Nash Hall 737-1086, [email protected]
Class Chondrichthyes
The sharks, skates, and rays
Order Lamniformes
Family Lamnidae (5 spp)
The mackerel sharks
Includes the white sharks
Species we might encounter
• None
– Salmon shark
– White shark
•
•
•
•
Heavy bodied, shark shaped
Underslung jaw, large teeth
Streamlined
Crescent shaped, nearly
symmetrical caudal fin
• 1st dorsal and pectoral fins
large
• Anal fin present
• Fast swimming, partly warm
blooded
Order Lamniformes
Family Carcharinidae (32 spp)
The requiem sharks
Species we might encounter
• None
– Blue shark
•
•
•
•
•
Long, slender
Snout narrow, pointed
Large pectoral fins
Dark blue back
White belly
Order Squaliformes
Family Squalidae (10 spp)
The dogfish sharks
Species we might encounter
• None, although spiny
dogfish probably enter
the bay
• Small bodied, shark
shaped
• No anal fin
• 1st dorsal entirely in
front of pelvic fins
• Spine at front of each
dorsal fin
Order Rajiformes
Family Rajidae (>200 spp)
The skates and rays
Species we might encounter
• None
– Big skate
– Longnose skate
• Dorso-ventrally
flattened
• Rhomboid to circular
disk (body)
• Spines on disk and tail
Subclass Holocephali
Order Chimaeriformes
Family Chimaeridae (25 spp)
The ratfishes
Species we might encounter
• None
– Spotted ratfish
•
•
•
•
Short, blunt snout
Rabbit-shaped head
Flat crushing teeth
Prominent lateral line
on slippery skin
• Large, triangular
pectoral fin
• Green eyes
• White spots
Class Osteichthyes
The bony fishes
Order Acipenseriformes
Family Acipenseridae (25 spp)
The sturgeons
Species we might encounter
• None, although green
and white sturgeon do
exist in Yaquina Bay
• Cartilaginous skeleton
• Heterocercal tail
• Sub-terminal mouth
– Suction feeder
• 5 rows of dermal scutes
• 23-30 scutes on midside
– Green sturgeon
• 38-48 scutes on midside
– White sturgeon
Order Salmoniformes
Family Salmonidae (66 spp)
The salmon, trout, and charr
Salmonids we might encounter
• Chinook salmon
• Chum salmon
• Coho salmon
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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•
Elongate
Short dorsal mid-body
Pectoral fins low
Pelvic fins abdominal
No fin spines
Square caudal fin
Fine specks on back but no spots
– Chum
Black spots on back and upper tail,
gums white
– Coho
Black spots on back and whole tail,
gums black
– Chinook
Order Salmoniformes
Family Osmeridae(~11 spp)
The smelts
Species we might encounter
• Whitebait smelt
• Surf smelt
• Eulachon
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Small, frail
Adipose fin
Dorsal fin short, midbody
Pelvic fins abdominal
Countershaded
Large canine tooth
– Whitebait smelt
Upper jaw ends before middle of eye
– Surf smelt
Striations on gill cover
– Eulachon
Order Clupeiformes
Family Clupeidae (~200 spp)
The herrings and shads
Species we might encounter
•
•
•
•
Pacific herring
Pacific sardine
Threadfin shad*
American shad*
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Laterally compressed
Silvery, but countershaded
1 short dorsal fin
Caudal fin deeply forked
No adipose fin
No spines
No black spots
– Herring
1 dark spot behind head
– Threadfin shad
Keeled scutes
– American shad
Several dark spots on upper body
– Pacific sardine
Order Clupeiformes
Family Engraulididae (~135 spp)
The anchovies
Species we might encounter
• Northern anchovy
• Small, silvery
• Long snout
– Overhangs very large
mouth
• Upper jaw extends well
past eye
• Otherwise similar to
herrings
Order Gadiformes
Family Gadidae (~75 spp)
The cods
Species we might encounter
• Pacific cod, but not
likely
•
•
•
•
•
•
Elongate
3 dorsal fins, 2 anal fins
Pelvic fins thoracic
No fin spines
Barbels
Sub-terminal mouth
Order Gadiformes
Family Merlucciidae (~12 spp)
The hakes
Species likely to encounter
• Pacific Hake, but not
likely
• Similar to cods
• V-shaped ridge on top
of head
• No chin barbel
• Lower jaw projects
slightly
Order Gobiesociformes
Family Gobiesocidae (~140 spp)
The clingfishes
Species likely to encounter
• Northern clingfish
•
•
•
•
Sucking disk on breast
No scales
No fin spines
Dorsal fin opposite anal
fin, located way back
• Look like tadpoles
Order Atheriniformes
Family Atherinidae (150 spp)
The silversides
Species we might encounter
• Topsmelt
• Jacksmelt
– Yaquina Bay n’most
distribution
• Not to be confused with
true smelts.
– Have two dorsal fins and
no adipose fin
• Bright silver side stripe
• Small mouth
• No lateral line
Order Gasterosteiformes
Family Syngnathidae (~190 spp)
The pipefishes and seahorses
Species we might encounter
• Bay pipefish
• Encased in bony rings
• Body rigid, very long
and slender
• Small, toothless mouth
at end of tube snout
Order Gasterosteiformes
Family Gasterosteidae (~190 spp)
The sticklebacks
Species we might encounter
• Threespine stickleback
• Small mouth at end of
tube-shaped jaw
• Armored with bony
plates instead of scales
• 3 isolated spines before
soft dorsal
– 3 Spine stickleback
Order Scorpaeniformes
Family Scorpaenidae (~390 spp)
The rockfishes and their relatives
Species we might encounter
•
•
•
•
•
Black rockfish
Copper rockfish
China rockfish
Yellowtail rockfish
Quillback rockfish
•
•
•
•
Very spiny, venomous
Bass-like body
Livebearers
Brown to black w/mottled orange
–
•
Yellow stripe along lateral line
–
•
Yellowtail
Black mottled w/mouth beyond eye
–
•
China
Olive to brown w/yellow tail and fins
–
•
Quillback
Black
Creamy tan w/brown stripes
–
Copper
Order Scorpaeniformes
Family Cyclopteridae (~25 spp)
The lumpfishes
Species we might encounter
• None, but they’re really
cute!
• Pacific spiny
lumpsucker might be
found in tidepool hiding
inside an old large
barnacle shell
• Related to snailfishes
• Modified pelvic fins
form sucker disk
• Size and shape of a
golfball –globular
• Covered with conical
plates
Order Scorpaeniformes
Family Liparidae (~150 spp)
The snailfishes
Species likely to encounter
• Lobefin snailfish
• Tidepool snailfish
• Marbled snailfish
• Pelvic fins modified
into sucking disk
• Soft bodied
• Dorsal and anal fin
often joined to caudal
fin
• Similar to clingfishes
Order Scorpaeniformes
Family Agonidae (~50 spp)
The poachers
Species we might encounter
• Not likely, but
– Tubenose poacher
– Smooth alligatorfish
• Elongate
• Scales fused into long
bony plates w/spines
• 1 dorsal fin
– Smooth alligatorfish
• 2 dorsal fins
– Tubenose poacher
Order Scorpaeniformes
Family Hexagrammidae (~11 spp)
The greenlings
Species we might encounter
•
•
•
•
Kelp greenling
Rock greenling
Painted greenling
Lingcod
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
No spiny head
Elongate body w/1 divided dorsal fin
Pelvic fins thoracic
Freckled reddish or blue spots
– Kelp greenling
Large cirrus above eye, dark bars or
blotches on fins
– Rock greenling
5-7 reddish bars on body
– Painted greenling
Large canine-like teeth
– Lingcod
Order Scorpaeniformes
Family Cottidae (~300 spp)
The sculpins
Species we might encounter
•
•
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Buffalo sculpin
Calico sculpin
Coralline sculpin
Dusky sculpin
Furry sculpin
Longhorn sculpin
Mosshead sculpin
Padded sculpin
Rosylip sculpin
Saddleback sculpin
Scalyhead sculpin
Sharpnose sculpin
Smoothhead sculpin
Staghorn sculpin
Tidepool sculpin
Brown Irish Lord
Red Irish Lord
Cabezon
• Stout, round body
• Large head w/spines,
knobs, or cirri
• Large, fanlike pectoral
fins
• Dorsal, anal fins usually
long
• Mostly browns, but
some bright green
Order Perciformes
Family Embiotocidae (24 spp)
The surfpurches
Species we might encounter
• Shiner perch
• White surf perch
• Redtail surfperch
• Laterally compressed, elliptical
• Un-notched dorsal fin
• Fins reddish brown
– Redtail surfperch
• Silvery, black and yellow bars
– Shiner perch
• Black line at base of dorsal fin
– White surfperch
Order Perciformes
Family Stichaeidae (~65 spp)
The pricklebacks
Species we might encounter
•
•
•
•
•
•
Black prickleback
• Eel-like
Snake prickleback
• All rays in dorsal fin are
spiny
Rock prickleback
• Similar to gunnels, but
High Cockscomb
gunnels have a shorter
Monkeyface prickleback
anal fin
Decorated warbonnet
Order Perciformes
Family Pholidae (14 spp)
The gunnels
Species we might encounter
•
•
•
•
Rockweed gunnel
Saddleback gunnel
Red gunnel
Penpoint gunnel
•
•
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•
•
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Eel like with long, compressed body
Dorsal fin long, flexible
Dorsal and anal fin join with caudal
fin
Saddles on back
– Saddleback gunnel
Single grooved spine at base of anal
fin, no pelvic fins
– Penpoint gunnel
2 dark bars down and back from eye
– Red gunnel
Uniform color from green to brown
– Rockweed gunnel
Order Pleuronectiformes
Family Bothidae (~115 spp)
The left-eyed flounders
Species we might encounter
• Pacific sanddab
• Flat
• Eyes on left side
Order Pleuronectiformes
Family Pleuronectidae (93 spp)
The right-eyed flounders
Species we might encounter
•
•
•
•
Starry flounder
English sole
Rock sole
Pacific halibut
•
•
•
•
•
•
Flat
Eyes on right side
Alternating black and orange bars on
fins
– Starry flounder
Can see upper eye from blind side
– English sole
Caudal fin indented, spotted
– Pacific halibut
Abrupt lateral line arch above
pectoral fin, dorsal lateral line branch
– Rock sole