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HUMAN COMMUNICATION
From Groups to Persuasion
Review of Interpersonal Communication

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How does popular culture use
schemas to draw in audiences?
How do politicians use Self
identity to draw in voters?
What flaws do you see in the
theories we discussed? Any?
Group Communication

Tell me about the groups you have been a part of
Group Development Theory (Tuckman)

Forming Stage
 Seek

information, careful
Storming Stage
 Conflict

Norming Stage
 Cohesion

Performing Stage
 Focus

on objectives
Adjourning Stage
 Disbands
Groups


Task vs. Social Focus
Functional Theory
 Understanding
the problem
 Est.
of goals
 ID alternative realistic proposals
 Evaluate Alternatives

Groupthink!! Does it happen?
Persuasion
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

Dates back to Aristotle and rhetoric
Directed social influence
A communication effort aimed at changing attitude,
intention or behavior
Shape, reinforce, or change
Is it propaganda?
One vs. Two-sided messages
Attitude

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Derived to motivate behavior in order to exert
effects at various stages of processing
Attitudes are processed according to a set of
processing elements
Awareness is not the same as attitude
Derived from a indirect and direct experiences
Attitude

Three classes (Eagley & Chaiken, 1993)
 Cognitive-
all thoughts
 Affective- feelings and emotions
 Behavioral- actions with respect to the attitude object

How does what we talked about Monday come into
play with attitudes?
Sources

Credibility
Of source/ speaker
 Of evidence and novelty
 Competence and character

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Similarity
Physical Attraction
Social Attractiveness- you would like them
List 5 who are credible to you and 5 non-credible
Who is the best source for a message?
Selectivity

Selective exposure- exposure to messages similar
Selective attention- do we pay attention?
Selective retention- remember those that are
meaningful
Selective perception- alter the meaning to fit you

Do we do this?
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Theory of Reasoned Action

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Fishbein & Ajzen, 1980
Predict behavioral intentions
Intention is the best indicator of action
Attitude Sum
of beliefs about performing behavior
 Evaluation of beliefs

Subjective Norms
 Social
appropriateness and pressures
Theory of Planned Behavior


Ajzen 1985
Stemmed from TRA
 Perceived
Behavioral Control added (efficacy)
 Intention versus confidence

“A general rule, the more favorable the attitude
and the subjective norm, and the greater the
perceived control the stronger should the person’s
intention to perform the behavior in question”
Elaboration Likelihood Model

Two routes of persuasion
 Central-
persistent and resistant to change
 Peripheral


Limited capacity to process information
We react based on whether we are
 Motivated
to process (involvement, info relevance)
 Able to process (cognitive capacity)
 Have pre-existing positive or negative attitudes
Need for Cognition

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Need to structure a situation in a meaningful way to
help them understand the complex world they live
Cacioppo & Petty (1982) “tendency to engage and
enjoy thinking”
High NFC- intrinsically motivated and will seek complex
tasks
Low NFC-rather avoid effortful, cognitive work required
to derive attitudes based on merit
High scrutinize and low will be persuaded peripherally
Monday



Read articles
Take NFC test
We will discuss a case study applying the theories
of persuasion and looking at their positives and
negatives
HAPPY 4TH OF JULY!!
Enjoy your weekend!