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Transcript
STUDY GUIDE ON LIFE CYCLE
FERTILIZATION AND PREGNANCY
Gametes are made through meiosis
Ovary releases an egg
Sperm travels through vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube to meet egg
Fertilization is when sperm fuses with egg; makes a ZYGOTE (1 diploid cell)
Zygote begins to make copies through MITOSIS (grows in cell number)
When zygote starts dividing it is called an embryo
Makes a fluid filled ball and implants in uterine wall  pregnancy
First Trimester
o Cells organize into three major layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm;
Different parts of the body develop from these different layers
o Placenta
o Embryo begins to move
o From 8 weeks to birth: the embryo is called a fetus
Second Trimester
o Mother’s abdomen begins to swell as uterus enlarges
o Fetuses heartbeat can be heard and skeleton begins to form
o Can feel fetus moving around
Third trimester: Fetus grows quickly and changes so it can survive outside the mother
Birth occurs 270 days after fertilization
o Smooth muscles lining uterus contract
o Muscles in cervix and vagina relax
CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT
First Four Weeks – Neonatal Life
o Reflexes: sucking, rooting, Babinski
o Human Newborns are helpless compared to other animals
o Human newborns are helpless but ready to learn
Infancy: Head and neck are 30% of the body (adults 10%)
Childhood: Rapid neurological development, Learn to speak, Increased height
Adolescence and Puberty: growth spurt, secondary sex characteristics, Menarche
Reaction Norm: G + E  P
o Environment can play a part in shaping the adult organism
o Factors that influence growth and nutrition: Genetics, Neural control, Hormonal
control, Nutrition, Secular trends, Socioeconomic Class, Season and Climate,
Exercise, Disease, Antenatal insults, Emotion
POSSIBLE ESSAY:
Describe the details of fertilization and pregnancy.
BIOLOGY OF AGING
Aging is the process of getting older
Why study aging?
Senescence: deleterious effects associated with increasing age
Life span: how long humans can live
Life expectancy: how long a person is expected to live
General Aging Change: Loss of height, Deterioration of muscle, More fat
Aging Theories: Aging by Program, Wear and Tear
NORMAL AGING AND AGE RELATED DISEASES/DISORDERS:
Aging in the Skin
Aging in Skeletal System
Aging in Muscular System
Aging in Nervous System
Aging in the Senses
Aging in the Circulatory System
Aging in the Immune System
Aging in the Respiratory System
Aging in the Digestive System
Aging in the Urinary Systems
Aging in the Reproductive Systems
POSSIBLE ESSAYS:
What is the difference between normal age related changes and age related
disorders. Using one system in the body, describe an example of each
As humans we all share a basic life cycle. Discuss some of the phases of the
life cycle that we all share and then discuss some of the differences that
occur in the life cycle (between different cultures, times, locations, etc.).
Make sure to discuss things that can cause variation in the life cycle (ie.
disease