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Transcript
The endocrine system
SHANDONG UNIVERSITY
Liu Zhiyu
The endocrin system
•The general description
Composition
endocrine glands
(ductless glands )
have no ducts, their secretions
(hormone ) release directly into
circulation and trave to its target organs
endocrine tissue
The endocrine system is an
important another regulating
and intergrative system
besides the nervous system.
endocrine glands
The endocrine glands include :
hypophysis
thyroid gland
parathyroid gland
suprarenal gland
pineal body
thymus
The endocrine tissues lie
in the pancreas ( pancreatic
islets)and the ovary and
testis.
1、position:

situated in the hypophyseal
fossa of the body of the sphenoid
bone;

connected to the hypothalamus
by the infundibulum.
2、 division: it is divided into
two parts:
Adenohypophysis
neurohypophysis
一、 hypophysis
Pars distalis
Anterior lobe
Adenohypophysis
Pars tuberalis
Pars intermedia
Neurohypophysis
Pars nervous
Infundibular part
Median eminence
Posterior
lobe
infundibulum
3、neighborhood
Superior :
Inferior :sphenoid sinus
diaphragma sellae
Lateral side:
optic chiasma
chiasmatic cistern
cavernous sinus and the
strunctures passing through it
Connect with hypothalamus
Function of hypophysis
Supraoptic nucleus
(vasopressin )
Paraventricular
nucleus
Paraventriculohypophyseal tract
(oxytocin )
Supraopticohypophyseal
trac
posterior lobe of
hypophysis
1、division :
right and left lobes
Isthmus : the median
narrow part ,
pyramidal lobe :
Sometimes present,
extendes upwards from
the isthmus.
二、thyroid gland
二、thyroid gland
2、position:
•lies in the anterior neck
region with one lobe on
either side of lower larynx
and upper part of the
trachea.
•The ishmus lies in front
of the 2-4 tracheal
cartilages.
3、The coats of the thyroid glands
Inner layer: fibrous capsule
External layer: thyroid sheath
Suspensory ligament of thyroid gland
4、relation:
from superficial to deep:
Skin
Superficial fascia
superficial layer of cervical fascia
Infrahyoid muscles
pretracheal fascia
三、parathyroid glands
they are 4 small yellowish ovoid bodies.
superior parathyroid glands:
• lie at the junction of the middle
and upper 1/3 of the posterior
border of the thyroid gland ;
between the two capsules.
inferior parathyroid glands
lie in the lower end of thyroid
glands and close to the inferior
thyroid artery
三、parathyroid glands
Function:
they regulate the metablism
of the calcium and
phosphate which are
needed by all cells.
四、suprarenal galnd
Position and shape:
Position: lie on the medial part of the upper end of each
kidney ;
enclosed by the renal fascia.;
Shape: the right is
crescent- like shape
the left one is triangular.
Division:
• the suprarenal gland
may be divided into two
parts:
四、suprarenal galnd
cortex
secrets numbers of steroid
hormones ,maintain the
electrolytic balance and
carbohydrorate metabolism.
medulla
epinephrine
norepinephrine
五、 The pineal body
lies on the supero-posterior to the dorsal thalamus;
connect to the posterior of the roof of third ventricle.
melatonin
六、thymus
position: the thymus lies in the anterior part
of the superior madiastinum, anterosuperior to
the pericardium.
六、thymus
function:
the thymus is an important organ of the immune system
and secrete a hormone,the lymphopoietin,that
stimulates the develoment of lymphocytes .
七、 pancreatic islets
lie within the pancreas and
is called islets of Langerhans ,
they secrete
insulin
regulate the
blood sugar
level.
八、 ovary
The ovarian follicle and the
corpus luteum are the
endocrine tissue of the ovary.
hormons: estrogen
progesterone
九、testis
the interstitial tissue of the
testis produce the testosterone :
responsible for the development
of the male secondary sexual
characteristics.