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1st Quarter Microbiology Final Exam Review 1. Know the difference between a capsule and a slime layer. a. Both made of glycocalyx b. Capsule: firmly attached and organized, also produces toxins c. Slime layer: loosely attached and unorganized 2. Know that an organism that is .01 micrometers in size would be 10 nanometers (10 nm) in size. 3. Know that characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumonia. a. No cell wall, smallest free living organism, pleomorphic 4. Know what endospore formation is called. a. Sporogenesis or sporulation 5. Know what a cell in a hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic solution will do. Also, know what it is called when a cell undergoes lyses in a hypertonic solution or a hypotonic solution is called (ie. Plasmolysis vs. Plasmoptysis). Additionally, know how to figure out what will happen to a cell when placed in certain solutions (and therefore what kind of solution is being described, either hypo or hypertonic. a. Hypotonic: solute concentration higher inside the cell, water will rush in and may burst = Plasmoptysis b. Hypertonic: solute concentration higher outside the cell, water will rush out and may shrink = Plasmolysis c. Isotonic: solute concentration is the same inside and outside the cell, water will enter and leave the cell at the same rate, the cell is at equilibrium 6. Know that 10^-9 is a nanometer (used to measure viruses) and 10^-6 is a micrometer (used to measure bacteria.) 7. Know what bacterial nomenclature refers to (the 2 names used to classify organisms). a. Genus species 8. Know how to perform a bacterial growth calculation using the following equation: a. Bf = Bi X 2^n b. Also know the definition of generation time: time need to double bacterial population 9. Know the function of an inclusion body in a cell. a. Storage of certain nutrients for the cell to be used when conditions are less favorable 10. Know what the study of fungi is called. Also know that fungi are Eukaryotic organism. a. Study of fungi = Mycology 11. Know the difference between facultative saprophytes/parasites and obligate sprophytes/parasites. a. Facultative saprophytes: adapted to dead organic material, prefer living organic material b. Facultative parasites: adapted to living organic material, prefer dead organic material c. Obligate saprophytes: can only survive on dead organic material d. Obligate parasites: can only survive on living organic material 12. Know that bacteria are considered to be prokaryotic organisms. 13. Know the function of a flagellum. (Movement) 14. Know the difference between thermophiles, mesophiles, and psychrophiles. Also, know the type most pathogenic bacteria are classified as. Additionally, know the temperature ranges that must exist for each of these 3 bacteria to thrive/survive. a. Thermophiles: survive at hot temperatures, 40-70 degrees C b. Mesophiles: survive at middling temperatures, 25-40 degrees C, most pathogenic bacteria are mesophiles c. Psychrophiles: survive at cold temperatures, 0-25 degrees C 15. Know that most pathogenic bacteria are heterotrophs. Also know that heterotrophs require organic carbon for survival. 16. Know the correct taxonomic hierarchy (starting with Domain on down to Species). a. Domain > Kingdom > Division/Phylum > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species b. Pneumonic devices: Domineering Kings Play Chess On Folding Glass Stools, Domineering King David/Phillip Calls Out For Good Soup 17. Know what it is called when bacteria can have different shapes (monomorphic vs pleomorphic). Also, know genetically which type is most common amongst bacteria. a. Monomorphic: having only one shape for its entire lifespan, most bacteria are monomorphic b. Pleomorphic: have more than one shape over its lifespan 18. Know what refrigeration will do to a mesophile’s growth rate. (Slows or stops growth) 19. Know the spherical-shaped bacteria that also form grape-like clusters. (Staphylococcus) 20. Know how to calculate the total magnification. (Objective lens X Ocular lens) 21. Know that prokaryotes do not have a nucleus (or a nuclear membrane). 22. Know that the following trace elements may be essential for enzymatic function of bacterial cells: Iron, Copper, and Molybdenum. 23. Know the pH range of the medium that bacteria grow best in. (6.5-7.5) 24. Know the differences between spirochetes and spirillum. a. Spirochetes: helical, flexible when in motion b. Spirillum: helical, rigid when in motion, corkscrew motion 25. Know what the arrangement of bacteria that are rod-shaped, cling end-to-end, and form chains is called. (Streptobacilli) 26. Know that peptidoglycan resembles a chain-link fence and is a structural material found in the bacterial cell wall. 27. Know the correct way to write the scientific name of a bacteria. a. First name: Genus, capitalized; Second name: species, lowercase 28. Know which type of Gram stained bacteria are more resistant to penicillin. (Gram negative) 29. Know what reproduction in bacteria is also called. (binary fission) 30. Know that a nuclear membrane is never part of a bacterial cell. (because there is no nucleus) 31. Know that when essential nutrients are depleted, endospores are formed. 32. Know what the study of the first-made or formed animals is called. (study of protozoa = Protozoology) 33. Know what the microorganism that requires very little free oxygen is called. (Microaerophilic) 34. Know Rickettsia causes typhus fevers 35. Know that bacteria that does not have a cell wall. (Mycoplasma) 36. Know what the comma-shaped bacteria are also called. (Vibrios) 37. Know the most important function of the bacterial cell membrane (the plasma membrane) is to act as a gate-keeper or barrier for incoming or outgoing substances. 38. Know spore formation is a defensive mechanism by the cell. (NOT reproduction) 39. Know the 2 most common differential staining techniques are called. (Acid-fast and Gram) 40. Endospores return to their vegetative state by a process called what? (Germination) 41. Know that an endospore stain is a special stain that reveals an internal bacterial structure. 42. Know the definition for active transport. a. The transport of substances across the membrane barrier that requires ATP and a carrier protein to complete because it is moving the substances against the concentration gradient, i.e. from a low concentration to a high concentration 43. Know that a passive flow of substances moves from a high concentration to a low concentration. 44. Know that bacteria is a prokaryotic organism that contains peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell walls. 45. Know that to increase the resolution of the microscope, the light source must be of a shorter wavelength. 46. Know the shapes of bacteria (cocci, bacilli, spirochetes and how they are referred to when found in grape-like clusters or chains). a. Cocci – spherical b. Bacilli – rod-shaped c. Spirochetes – helical or spiral-shaped, or comma-shaped d. Grape-like clusters: staphylo e. Chains: Strepto 47. Know the best and most effective way to stain Mycobacterium. (Acid-fast) 48. Know that osmotic pressure describes the pressure that develops when 2 solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semipermeable membrane. 49. Know most bacteria would survive best in a medium where the solvent is water. 50. Know the genera of bacteria that form endospores. (Bacillus and Clostridium) 51. Know that when a Gram positive cell wall is almost completely destroyed by digestive enzymes what remains is called a protoplast. 52. Know the characteristics/functions of ribosomes include the synthesis of proteins, are active during cell growth, and give the cytoplasm a granular appearances. 53. Know the different arrangements of flagella. a. Monotrichous: 1 polar flagellum b. Amphitrichous: having a flagellum at both ends c. Lophotrichous: having a tuft or bunch of flagella at one end d. Peritrichous: flagella cover the entire cell surface 54. Know the bacterial structures responsible for attachment. And know that N. gonorrhoeae utilizes this structure in order to adhere to the host. (pili/fimbrae) 55. Know that autotrophs utilize CO2 as its principal carbon source. (by photosynthesis) 56. Know that capsules increase the virulence of a bacterial cell. 57. Know that Gram positive cell walls contain many layers of peptidoglycan. 58. Know what bacterial movement in response to a stimulus is called. a. Chemotaxis: chemicals are the stimuli b. Phototaxis: light is the stimulus 59. Know that the domain Archaea contains prokaryotic organisms that lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls. 60. Know the layers of a prokaryotic cell from outside to in would be: capsule, cell wall, plasma membrane, then cytoplasm. 61. Know that virus is a submicroscopic, parasitic, filterable agent that consists of nucleic acid core (either DNA or RNA) and is surrounded by a protein coat.