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NEOPTERA = exopterygotes and
Endopterygota
Plecoptera = Stoneflies
(plectos = pleated; pteron = a wing)
• Metamorphosis = hemimetabolous
• Key features:
– Wings fold over back =Neoptera
– Aquatic larvae
– Often used as bio-indicators
for stream pollution
= “outside” and
“inside” wings
Blattodea =
Cockroaches
(blatta = cockroach)
• Metamorphosis = hemimetabolous
• Key features:
– Flattened body
– Front wings toughened as
protective cover hind wings
– Eggs often laid in toughened
ootheca
– Only about 40 species (1%) of
cockroach are considered pests.
Orthoptera =
grasshoppers, crickets,
katydids
(orthos = straight; pteron = a wing)
• Metamorphosis = hemimetabolous
• Known species = 20,000
• Key features:
– Hind legs for jumping
– Sound production using hind legs or
front wings
Isoptera = Termites
(iso = equal, like;
pteron = a wing)
• Metamorphosis = hemimetabolous
• Key features:
– Social insects with different
castes
– Symbionts convert wood etc to
nutrients
Orthoptera = grasshoppers,
crickets, katydids
(orthos = straight; pteron = a wing)
• Swarms of the migratory
grasshoppers can
number in the billions,
causing severe crop
damage along the way.
1
Phasmatodea = stick and leaf
insects
Mantodea = Mantids
(mantis = diviner, prophet)
(phasma = apparition, spectre)
• Metamorphosis = hemimetabolous
• Key features:
– Mobile triangular head
– Raptorial front legs
– Eggs laid in papery, foam-like egg
cases (ootheca)
• Metamorphosis = hemimetabolous
• Key features:
– Slow-moving, herbivorous
– Leaf-like or stick-like body
– Eggs often ant-dispersed
alternate: Embiidina
Dermaptera = Earwigs
(dermatos = skin;
pteron = a wing)
• Metamorphosis = hemimetabolous
• Key features:
– Forceps-like cerci, male combat
– Leathery front wings
– Semicircular hind wings
– Maternal care common
Embioptera = web spinners
(embios = lively; pteron = a wing)
♂
• Metamorphosis = hemimetabolous
• Key features:
– Gregarious in silk galleries
– Swollen first tarsal segment
containing silk glands
– Females wingless, males
winged
– Escape behavior is to move
backward
♀
Hemiptera = bugs, aphids,
hoppers
Hemiptera, 3 suborders
(hemi = half; pteron = a wing)
• Metamorphosis = hemimetabolous
• Known species = 82,000
• Key features:
– Fifth largest order
– Mouthparts forming a
sucking/piercing beak or rostrum
– Stink glands and sound
producing organs sometimes
present
1. Heteroptera = true
bugs
2. Auchenorrhyncha = the
hoppers
3. Sternorrhyncha = plant
lice, whiteflies, aphids,
scale insects
2
Phthiraptera = Parasitic lice
• Hemipterans of note:
– Oncopeltus fasciatus
(milkweed bug)
– Kerria lacca (lac
insect)
– Magicicada spp.
(Periodic cicadas)
– Dactylopius coccus
(cochineal insect)
– Cimex lectularius
(bed bug)
– Triatoma infestans
(Kissing bug)
– Many others...
(phtheiros = louse;
a+pteron = wingless)
• Metamorphosis = hemimetabolous
• Key features:
– Small, wingless ectoparasites living
permanently on vertebrate hosts
– Legs modified for clinging
Psocoptera = barklice and
booklice
Thysanoptera = Thrips
(psokos = gnawed; pteron = a wing)
(thysanos = fringed; pteron = a wing)
• Metamorphosis = hemimetabolous
• Key features:
– Common on trees, vegetation,
and litter
– Parthenogenesis (females give
rise to females) is common
The Endopterygota
• Metamorphosis =
hemimetabolous
• Key features:
– Mainly liquid feeders
– Hair-fringed wings
– Some species have
maternal care, social
behaviors
Neuroptera =
Lacewings & antlions
• Metamorphosis =
holometabolous
• Key features:
– Prominent eyes
– Wing venation complex
and net-like
3
Raphidioptera -Snakeflies
Megaloptera
Alderflies & Dobsonflies
• Metamorphosis =
holometabolous
• Elongated pronotum
• Ovipositor (females
only)
• Metamorphosis =
holometabolous
• Key features:
– Aquatic larva
– Adults do not feed
– Male mandibles used for
combat
Coleoptera = Beetles
Coleoptera
(koleos = sheath; pteron = a
wing)
• Four suborders
• Metamorphosis =
holometabolous
• Known species = 370,000
(37.0% of all insect species)
• Key features:
– Front wings modified as rigid
elytra covering hind wings
– Pronotum large and distinct
1.
2.
3. Adephaga (terrestrial
and aquatic; mostly
predacious)
4. Polyphaga (variable;
some 149 families)
Strepsiptera =
Twisted-winged insects
Diptera = Flies, mosquitoes
(streptos = twisted; pteron = wing)
• Metamorphosis = holometabolous
• Key features:
– Endoparasites of insects
– Sexually dimorphic
– Adult females typically neotenous
(retaining immature features) = no
eyes, legs, wings, external
genitalia
– Phylogenetic placement under
debate (either with Coleoptera or
Diptera)
Archostemata (3 primitive families)
Myxophaga (aquatic or associated with
water)
♂
(di = two; pteron = wing)
• Metamorphosis = holometabolous
• Known species = 122,000 (12.2%)
• Key features:
– One pair of functional wings
– Halteres (balancing organs)
♀
4
•
•
•
Diptera = Flies, mosquitoes
Mecoptera = Scorpionflies
(di = two; pteron = a wing)
(mekos = long; pteron = a wing)
Two diverse suborders
– Nematocera & Brachycera
Some families parasitic
Dipterans of note:
– Phaenicia sericata – green blow fly
(medical use)
– Aedes aegypti (dengue fever, yellow
fever, encephalitis)
– Culex spp. (Many diseases)
– Glossina spp. – tsetse fly (Sleeping
sickness)
– Anopholes gambia (Malaria): the
deadliest insect...
– Drosophila melanogaster (model
organism)
• Metamorphosis =
holometabolous
• Key features:
– Distinctive elongated face
– Mostly in damp wooded areas
– Males present females with
nuptial gifts
Siphonaptera = Fleas
Trichoptera = Caddisflies
(siphon = pipe, tube;
a+pteron = wingless)
(trichos = hair; pteron = a wing)
• Metamorphosis =
holometabolous
• Key features:
– Small, wingless
ectoparasites on mammals
and birds
– Adults are blood feeders
– Characteristic jumping
ability
Lepidoptera = Butterflies, moths
• Metamorphosis =
holometabolous
• Key features:
– Aquatic larvae, typically in
self-constructed cases or
shelters, or nets
– Nocturnal and moth-like
– Weakly developed
mouthparts (nectar feeding)
– Used as a bio-indicator for
stream pollution
Lepidoptera
(lepidos = scale; pteron = a wing)
Lepidoptera of note:
•
•
•
•
Metamorphosis = holometabolous
Distribution = worldwide
Known species = 165,000 (16.5%)
Key features:
– Entire body and wings covered
with overlapping tiny scales
– Usually have sucking mouthparts
– Manduca sexta (tobacco
hornworm) – popular
experimental animal
– Lymantria dispar (Gypsy
moth) and many pests
(Clover Cutworm,
Soybean Looper, Corn
Earworm, Alfalfa Looper,
Celery Looper, Tobacco
budworm, Wheat
armyworm, Lawn
armyworm, etc.)
– Many gorgeous creatures
5
Hymenoptera = Bees, wasps, ants
(hymen = membrane; pteron = a wing)
• Metamorphosis = holometabolous
• Key features:
– Second largest order: Abundant
and ubiquitous
– Body usually with constricted waist
– Some species are social
– Ovipositor may be modified as a
stinger
Hymenoptera
• Two suborders
– Symphyta
(sawflies),
– Apocrita
(parasitoid group,
stinging group .
Insecta includes 3 divisions:
Archaeognatha, Thysanura, Pterygota
(mandible articulation, wings +/-)
Pterygota comprised of 3 divisions:
Ephemeroptera, Odonata, and Neoptera
(wing folding)
Neoptera divided into two basic groups;
“exopterygote” orders and Endopterygota
(where wings develop)
6