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The History of Psychology
PYB1Lesson 1
The word Psychology originates
from 2 Greek words:
Psyche meaning ‘Soul/Mind’ (no distinction)
Logos meaning ‘study of’
A more useful definition and one that reflects
what psychologists actually do is:
‘the scientific study of human and animal
behaviour and mental processes’
Psychology and other disciplines
The terms ‘social
sciences’ or ‘behavioural
sciences’ refer to a family
or cluster of disciplines of
which Psychology Is a
Study of Humans
and Animals and
why they
behave as they do
Sociology is the study of groups and
institutions within society. Sociology is
concerned with groups such as the family,
ethnic groups, subcultures, religious
institutions, the workplace and difference
between societies.
Sociologists are less
interested in personality,
interaction between two
or more people, and
social perception.
Sociologists are
concerned more with the
group rather than the
Overlaps with Social
Psychology, but
Sociology is Macro while
Psychology is Micro
Anthropology is concerned with the
different cultures that exist around the
world and their historical origins and
Anthropologists tend to work at a macro
level, concentrating on entire communities,
tribes or society as a whole.
Anthropologists are
interested in how
people lead their daily
lives in different
cultures, and usually
live within a
community to study.
There is a cross over
within Cross-cultural
concerned with
differences. (Child
development, social
Biology is concerned with
understanding how
organisms are structured
and how they function.
Structures include
muscles, the skeleton,
organs and the nervous
It is the study of the
nervous system that
relates to the biological
approach in psychology.
The Overlaps
Schools of Psychology
A number of different psychological
schools have been developed:
Psychodynamic: Freud, Jung, Erickson
Behaviourism: Watson, Pavlov, Skinner
Cognitivism: The Gestalt Psychologists
Humanistic: Rogers, Maslow
Biological: Biological scientists