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Transcript
Chapter 20
Childhood Diseases and Disorders
Copyright
Copyright
© 2010
© 2010
Delmar,
Delmar,
Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
Learning.
ALLALL
RIGHTS
RIGHTS
RESERVED.
RESERVED.
Infectious Diseases
• Four categories:
–
–
–
–
Viral
Bacterial
Fungal
Parasitic
• Some infections can be prevented by
immunization
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Infectious Diseases
• Many have incubation period
• Symptoms:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Fever
Nausea and vomiting
Malaise
Cough
Rash
Anorexia nervosa
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Infectious Diseases
• Varied treatment:
– Good nutrition
– Rest
– Non-aspirin antipyretics
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Viral Diseases
• Invade host and can lay dormant
• Reactivated by certain triggers:
– Stress
– Illness
– Trauma
• Usually symptomatic treatment
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Viral Diseases
• Measles
– Also known as rubeola
– Symptoms:
• Koplik’s spots
• Fever
• Runny nose
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Viral Diseases
• Rubella
– Type of measles
• Also known as German measles
– Symptoms:
• Rash
– Mild in children
– Serious in pregnant women
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Measles/Rubeola
Photo courtesy Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Koplik’s Spots
Photo courtesy Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Rubella Rash
Photo courtesy Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Viral Diseases
• Mumps
– Inflammation of parotid glands
– Symptoms:
•
•
•
•
Chills
Fever
Ear pain
Swelling of parotid glands
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Viral Diseases
• Mumps
– Complication:
• Orchitis and nerve conduction deafness
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Mumps
Photo courtesy Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Viral Diseases
• Varicella
– Also known as chickenpox or herpes zoster
– Symptoms:
• Rash that develops into vesicles
• Poliomyelitis
– Causes:
• Polio virus
– Immunization has reduced threat of disease
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Varicella
Photo courtesy Robert A. Silverman, MD,
Pediatric Dermatology, Georgetown University
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Viral Diseases
• Influenza
– Acute infectious respiratory disease
– Many types
– Prevention:
• Vaccination
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Viral Diseases
• Common cold
– Causes:
• Rhinovirus
– Prevention:
• Good handwashing
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Viral Diseases
• Mononucleosis
– Also known as kissing disease
– Causes:
• Epstein-Barr virus
• AIDS
– Causes:
• HIV
• Most cases result from maternal-fetal transfer
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Bacterial Diseases
• Causes:
– Pathogens
• E.g., staphylococcus, streptococcus, haemophilus, clostridium
• Symptoms:
– Fever
– Cough
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Bacterial Diseases
• Symptoms:
– Headache
– Difficulty breathing
– Sore throat
• Treatment based on causative agent
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Bacterial Diseases
• Pertussis
– Also known as whooping cough
– Symptoms:
• Paroxysmal
• Violent coughing
• Diphtheria
– Severe inflammation of respiratory system
– Rarely seen now due to vaccination
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Bacterial Diseases
• Tuberculosis
– Most commonly affects lungs
• But can be systemic
– Increasing number of cases in children
• Tularemia
– Also known as rabbit fever
– Transmitted by bite of infected insect or direct contact with
infected animal
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Bacterial Diseases
• Impetigo
– Dermatitis
– Causes:
• Staphylococcus
• Group A streptococcus
– Prevention:
• Good handwashing
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Bacterial Diseases
• Acute tonsillitis
– Infection of palatine tonsils located on posterior wall of
nasopharynx
– Treatment:
• Antibiotics
• Tonsillectomy
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Impetigo
Photo courtesy Robert A. Silverman, MD,
Pediatric Dermatology, Georgetown University
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Bacterial Diseases
• Otitis media
– Acute bacterial infection of middle ear
– Untreated, chronic infection develops
– Symptoms:
• Pain
– Treatment:
• Antibiotics
• Myringotomy with tympanoplasty
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Fungal Diseases
• Affect skin or mucous membranes in children
– Sometimes more common in infants
• Usually not severe
– But irritating
• May need medical attention to prevent spread
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Fungal Diseases
• Candidiasis
– Also known as thrush
– Oral fungal infection
– Common in infants
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Fungal Diseases
• Tinea
– Also known as ringworm
– Group of diseases
• Capitis
– Scalp
• Corporis
– Body
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Fungal Diseases
• Tinea
– Group of diseases
• Cruris
– Groin and scrotum
• Pedis
– Feet
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Parasitic Diseases
• Caused by organism that feeds on another
organism
• Mostly found in places of poor nutrition,
contaminated water, and low socioeconomic
conditions
• Only a few common in United States
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Parasitic Diseases
• Giardiasis
– Infection by caused by protozoa
– Symptoms:
•
•
•
•
Diarrhea
Nausea
Cramping
Flatulence
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Parasitic Diseases
• Giardiasis
– Symptoms:
• Fever
• Anorexia nervosa
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Parasitic Diseases
• Pediculosis
– Also known as lice
– Nits
• Lice eggs
– Epidemic among school children
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Parasitic Diseases
• Pinworms
– Parasitic nematodes that infect intestines and rectum
– Transmitted by ingestion or inhalation of eggs
• Roundworms
– Parasites that lodge in intestines
– Absorb nutrients from host
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Respiratory Diseases
• Most common childhood diseases seen by
physicians
– Children very vulnerable due to continuous person-toperson contact
• Infants most susceptible
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Respiratory Diseases
• Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
– Abrupt, unexplained death of infant under age 1
– Prevention:
• Place infants supine rather than prone in bed
• Croup (laryngotracheobronchitis)
– Affects children ages 3 months to 3 years
– Symptoms:
• Inspiratory stridor
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Respiratory Diseases
• Adenoid hyperplasia
– Enlargement of pharyngeal tonsils
– May require adenoidectomy
• Asthma
– Serious chronic respiratory disease in children
– Triggers:
• Stimuli that cause attack
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Respiratory Diseases
• Pneumonia
– Inflammation of lung parenchyma
– Symptoms:
•
•
•
•
Cough
Fever
Wheezing
Malaise
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Respiratory Diseases
• Pneumonia
– Treatment:
• Antibiotics if bacterial
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Digestive Diseases
• Children may experience serious development
problems due to lack of appropriate ingestion,
digestion, absorption, or elimination
• Fluid and electrolyte imbalance frequently
more severe in children
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Digestive Diseases
• Fluid imbalances
– Vomiting or diarrhea can be serious
– Dehydration
• Life-threatening in children
• Food allergies
– Many disappear after age 5
– Peanut allergies rising
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Digestive Diseases
• Eating disorders
– Major problem among children
• Especially adolescent females
– Most common types:
• Anorexia nervosa
• Bulimia
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Musculoskeletal Diseases
• Common in children due to high activity level
• Ranges from soft tissue injuries and fractures
to joint and bone deformities or degenerative
muscle disorders
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Musculoskeletal Diseases
• Legg-Calvé-Perthes (LCP)
– Avascular necrosis of upper end of femur
– Causes changes in bone growth
• Ewing’s sarcoma
– Malignant neoplasm occurring before age 20
• Usually in long bones
– More common in males
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Blood Diseases
• Leukemia
– Malignancy of blood-forming cells in bone marrow
– Most common disorder of blood and blood-forming organs
in children
– Treatment:
• Chemotherapy
– Often curable in children
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Neurologic Diseases
• Reye’s syndrome
– Acute encephalopathy in children under age 15 who have
had viral infection
– Symptoms:
• Nausea and vomiting
• Liver enlargement
• Lethargy
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Neurologic Diseases
• Reye’s syndrome
– Symptoms:
• Seizures
• Coma
– Important prevention:
• Avoid giving aspirin and products containing aspirin to children
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Eye and Ear Diseases
• Have profound effects on child’s ability to
learn and develop
• Strabismus
– Lazy or cross-eye
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Eye and Ear Diseases
• Deafness
– Causes:
•
•
•
•
Genes
Trauma
Infections
Exposure to ototoxic drugs
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Trauma
• Child abuse
– Serious problem in United States
– Often fatal
– Emotional, physical, or sexual harm or neglect
• Emotional abuse harder to diagnose than physical abuse
• Sexual abuse occurring in epidemic proportions
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Trauma
• Suicide
– Third leading cause of death among young people
– Early intervention most important
• Drug abuse
– Illicit drug, alcohol, and tobacco use
– Epidemic problem among children
• Especially adolescents
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Trauma
• Poisoning
– Among top five causes of accidental death under age 10
– Most poisonings due to common substances found at home
• E.g., cleaning products, medicines, plants
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Animation
Click Here to Play Asthma in Child Animation
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Animation
Click Here to Play Croup & Epiglottitis Animation
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.