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Chapter 7
Null and Void
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
The Urinary System
• The urinary system removes wastes from
the body.
– The urinary system also maintains homeostasis, or a
constant internal environment, within the body.
– Urin/o and ur/o are combining forms for the urinary
system.
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Parts of the Urinary System
• The structures of
the urinary system:
– a pair of kidneys
• ren/o and nephr/o
– a pair of ureters
• ureter/o
– a single urinary bladder
• cyst/o
– a single urethra
• urethr/o
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Kidney
• The kidneys are located behind the lining of the abdominal
cavity, or retroperitoneally protected by pads of fat.
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Kidney
• The two parts of the
kidney:
– The renal cortex is the outer
part.
• Cortic/o means outer
region.
– The renal medulla is the
inner part.
• Medull/o means inner.
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Kidney Structures
• Structures of the kidney:
– Hilus : The concave depression
where blood vessels, nerves, and the
ureter attach is called the hilus.
– Renal pelvis : area of the kidney
where urine collects before entering
the ureters ( is not present in some
species)
• Pyel/o means renal pelvis.
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Kidney Structures
• Structures of the kidney:
– Cortex : external / outer
portion of kidney
– Medulla: internal portion of
kidney
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Kidney Structures
• Structures of the kidney:
– Nephrons – functioning unit of the
kidney
• Design of the nephrons is organized in a
way that the originating part of the
nephron “lives” in the cortex
• Renal pyramids – also called
medullary pyramids
– 7 – 18 depending on speciess
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Nephron Structures
• Structures of the nephron:
– glomerulus = cluster of
capillaries
• glomerul/o
– Bowman’s capsule = cupshaped structure that
contains the glomerulus
– proximal convoluted tubules
= hollow tubes involved in
reabsorption
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Nephron Structures
– loop of Henle =
U-shaped turn involved in reabsorption
– distal convoluted tubules = hollow tubes involved in
secretion
– collecting tubules = hollow tubes that carry urine
from the cortex to the renal pelvis
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Ureters, Urinary Bladder,
and Urethra
• Ureters are a pair of narrow
tubes that carry urine from the
kidneys to the urinary bladder.
– Ureter/o means ureter.
• The urinary bladder is a
singular hollow muscular organ
that holds urine.
– Cyst/o means urinary bladder.
• The urethra is a tube extending
from the urinary bladder to the
outside of the body.
– Urethr/o means urethra.
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Different Species
• Bovine– multiple lobes
– No renal pelvis
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
• Horse
– Right kidney is
heart shaped
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Urine Production and
Elimination
• Uropoiesis is the process of urine
production
– -poiesis means formation.
• Micturition is the act of passing urine
– Urination
– Micturition implies voluntary control of the sphincter
muscle (learned behavior=intelligence)
• Urin/o and ur/o are combining forms for the
urinary system.
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Color and Clarity of Urine
• Normal urine is clear and pale yellow in
most species.
– Color
• -chrome means color
• pale yellow, straw, dark yellow, amber, red
– Clarity
• Clear
• Turbid (cloudy)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Vocabulary
• Anuria, Dysuria, Oliguria, Polyuria
• Glucosuria, Ketonuria, Hematuria,
Proteinuria, Pyouria
• Uremia
– Waste products in the blood
– Inability of the kidneys to filter
– “urine” in the blood
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Urine Test Strips
• Glucose-excess unstored blood sugar is
excreted in the urine
• Ketones- by products of breakdown of fat
(instead of carbohydrates)
• Bilrubin- by product of breakdown of red
blood cells/ the liver normally disposes this
waste
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
• Protein- not normally found in the urine
nephrons (specifically the glomerulus)
usually do not filter out the proteins
• Blood – indicates inflammation somewhere
in the urinary tract
• pH – acidic pH (meat eaters), alkaline
(cereal/ grain/herbivore)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Pathology
•
•
•
•
•
Uroliths
Urinary Obstruction
Polycystic kidneys
Pyelonephritis
Renal failure
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Uroliths
•
•
•
•
pH balance
Anywhere in urinary tract
10 minerals/salts
Common
– Struvite (alkaline urine)
– Calcium oxalate (acidic)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Uroliths in the bladder
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Urinary Obstruction
• Male Cats
• straining to urinate
• “crying” “yowling”
• frequent trips to
litter box
• blood in the urine
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Polycystic
Kidneys
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Pyelonephritis
•
•
•
•
•
Inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney
Kidney infection/ bacteria (painful)
Different reasons
Treatment – antibiotics
Pyelonephritis vs cystitis
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Renal Failure
• Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
– Sudden onset
– Toxins or trauma
• Antifreeze
• Raisins/ grapes
• Human drugs (tylenol)
• Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)
– Prolonged / progressive
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Medical Terms for the
Urinary System
• Additional terms for urinary system
tests, pathology, and procedures
can be found in the text.
• Review StudyWARE to make sure you
understand these terms.
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning