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MusclesPart3Lower
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
• Pelvic girdle is tightly bound to axial skeleton
• Permits little movement
• Has few muscles
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Muscles That Position the Lower Limbs
• Three Groups
1. Muscles that move the thigh
2. Muscles that move the leg
3. Muscles that move the foot and toes
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Muscles That Move the Thigh
• Gluteal muscles
• Lateral rotators
• Adductors
• Iliopsoas
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Gluteal Muscles
• Gluteus maximus
• Largest, most posterior gluteal muscle
• Produces extension and lateral rotation at hip
• Tensor fasciae latae
• Works with gluteus maximus
• Stabilizes iliotibial tract
• Gluteus medius and gluteus minimus
• Originate anterior to gluteus maximus
• Insert on trochanter
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 11-19a Muscles That Move the Thigh
Iliac crest
Sacrum
Gluteal Group
Gluteus
medius (cut)
Gluteus medius
Gluteus
maximus
(cut)
Gluteus maximus
Gluteus minimus
Gluteal region,
posterior view
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 11-19b Muscles That Move the Thigh
Gluteal Group
Gluteus medius
Gluteus maximus
Sartorius
Tensor fasciae
latae
Iliotibial tract
Rectus
femoris
Vastus lateralis
Biceps femoris,
long head
Biceps femoris,
short head
Semimembranosus
Patella
Plantaris
Head of fibula
Patellar
ligament
Lateral view
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 11-16 Muscles That Move the Thigh (Figure 11–19)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Lateral Rotators
• Group of six muscles, including the dominant:
1. Piriformis
2. Obturator
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 11-19c Muscles That Move the Thigh
Gluteal Group
Gluteus
maximus
(cut)
Gluteus
medius
(cut)
Gluteus
minimus
Tensor
fasciae
latae
Lateral Rotator
Group
Piriformis
Superior gemellus
Obturator internus
Inferior gemellus
Quadratus femoris
Ischial tuberosity
Iliotibial tract
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Posterior view, deep
muscles
Table 11-16 Muscles That Move the Thigh (Figure 11–19)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Adductors
• Adductor magnus
• Produces adduction, extension, and flexion
• Adductor brevis
• Hip flexion and adduction
• Adductor longus
• Hip flexion and adduction
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Adductors
• Pectineus
• Hip flexion and adduction
• Gracilis
• Hip flexion and adduction
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 11-19d Muscles That Move the Thigh
Iliopsoas Group
Psoas major
Iliacus
L5
Lateral Rotator
Group
Piriformis
Inguinal ligament
Obturator internus
Adductor Group
Obturator externus
Pectineus
Adductor brevis
Adductor longus
Adductor magnus
Gracilis
Anterior view of
the iliopsoas
muscle and the
adductor group
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 11-16 Muscles That Move the Thigh (Figure 11–19)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Iliopsoas
• Two hip flexors insert on the same tendon
1. Psoas major
2. Iliacus
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 11-19d Muscles That Move the Thigh
Iliopsoas Group
Psoas major
Iliacus
L5
Lateral Rotator
Group
Piriformis
Inguinal ligament
Obturator internus
Adductor Group
Obturator externus
Pectineus
Adductor brevis
Adductor longus
Adductor magnus
Gracilis
Anterior view of
the iliopsoas
muscle and the
adductor group
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 11-16 Muscles That Move the Thigh (Figure 11–19)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
A&P FLIX Muscles that Act on the Hip Joint and Femur: An Overview
A&P FLIX Anterior Muscles that Cross the Hip Joint
A&P FLIX Medial Muscles that Cross the Hip Joint
A&P FLIX Posterior Muscles that Cross the Hip Joint
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Muscles That Move the Leg
• Flexors of the knee
• Originate on the pelvic girdle
• Extensors of the knee
• Originate on the femoral surface
• Insert on the patella
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Flexors of the Knee
• Hamstrings
• Biceps femoris
• Semimembranosus
• Semitendinosus
• Sartorius
• Originates superior to the acetabulum
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 11-20a Muscles That Move the Leg
Iliac crest
Gluteus medius
Tensor fasciae
latae
Gluteus maximus
Adductor magnus
Gracilis
Iliotibial tract
Flexors of the Knee
Biceps femoris,
long head
Biceps femoris,
short head
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Sartorius
Popliteus
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hip and thigh,
posterior view
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Extensors of the Knee
• Four muscles of the quadriceps femoris
• Three vastus muscles
• Rectus femoris muscle
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 11-20b Muscles That Move the Leg
Anterior superior iliac spine
Inguinal ligament
Gluteus medius
Iliacus
Psoas major
Iliopsoas
Pubic tubercle
Tensor fasciae
latae
Pectineus
Adductor longus
Gracilis
Sartorius
Extensors of the Knee
(Quadriceps muscles)
Iliotibial tract
Rectus femoris
Vastus lateralis
Vastus medialis
Quadriceps tendon
Patella
Patellar ligament
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Quadriceps and thigh
muscles, anterior view
Table 11-17 Muscles That Move the Leg (Figure 11–20)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 11-20c Muscles That Move the Leg
POSTERIOR
Sciatic nerve
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Femur
Biceps femoris, long head
Extensors of the Knee
(Quadriceps muscles)
Biceps femoris, short head
Gracilis
Vastus lateralis
Vastus intermedius
Sartorius
Vastus medialis
Adductor magnus
Adductor longus
Rectus femoris
ANTERIOR
Sectional view
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Flexors of the Knee
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
A&P FLIX Muscles that Cross the Knee Joint: An Overview
A&P FLIX Anterior Extensors that Act on the Knee
A&P FLIX Posterior Flexors that Act on the Knee
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
• Extrinsic muscles that move the foot and toes include:
• Muscles that produce extension at the ankle
• Muscles that produce flexion at the ankle
• Muscles that produce extension at the toes
• Muscles that produce flexion at the toes
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Four Muscles That Produce Extension (Plantar
Flexion) at the Ankle
1. Gastrocnemius
2. Soleus
3. Fibularis (group)
4. Tibialis posterior
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 11-21a Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
Superficial Dissection
Ankle Extensors
Plantaris
Gastrocnemius,
medial head
Gastrocnemius,
lateral head
Soleus
Gastrocnemius
(cut and removed)
Calcaneal
tendon
Calcaneus
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Posterior views
Popliteus
Figure 11-21a Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
Deep Dissection
Head of fibula
Ankle Extensors
(Deep)
Tibialis posterior
Fibularis longus
Fibularis brevis
Digital Flexors
Flexor digitorum
longus
Flexor hallucis
longus
Tendon of
flexor
hallucis
longus
Tendon of flexor
digitorum longus
Tendon of fibularis brevis
Tendon of fibularis
longus
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Posterior views
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
• The Achilles Tendon
• The calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon)
• Shared by the gastrocnemius and soleus
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Muscles That Produce Flexion (Dorsiflexion) at the
Ankle
• Tibialis anterior
• Opposes the gastrocnemius
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Muscles That Produce Extension at the Toes
• Extensor digitorum longus
• Extensor hallucis longus
• Extensor retinacula fibrous sheaths
• Hold tendons of toes as they cross the ankle
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 11-21b Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
Iliotibial tract
Ankle Extensors
Head of fibula
Gastrocnemius,
lateral head
Ankle Flexors
Tibialis anterior
Fibularis longus
Soleus
Fibularis brevis
Digital Extensors
Extensor digitorum
longus
Superior extensor
retinaculum
Tendon of extensor
hallucis longus
Calcaneal tendon
Inferior extensor
retinaculum
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Lateral view
Figure 11-21c Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
Patella
Medial surface
of tibial shaft
Patellar
ligament
Ankle Flexors
Ankle Extensors
Tibialis anterior
Gastrocnemius,
medial head
Soleus
Tibialis posterior
Superior extensor
retinaculum
Digital Extensors
Tendon of extensor
hallucis longus
Calcaneal tendon
Flexor retinaculum
Tendon of
tibialis anterior
Inferior extensor
retinaculum
Medial view
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• Muscles That Produce Flexion at the Toes
• Flexor digitorum longus
• Flexor hallucis longus
• Oppose the extensors
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 11-21a Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
Deep Dissection
Head of fibula
Ankle Extensors
(Deep)
Tibialis posterior
Fibularis longus
Fibularis brevis
Digital Flexors
Flexor digitorum
longus
Flexor hallucis
longus
Tendon of
flexor
hallucis
longus
Tendon of flexor
digitorum longus
Tendon of fibularis brevis
Tendon of fibularis
longus
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Posterior views
Table 11-18 Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes (Figure 11–21)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 11-18 Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes (Figure 11–21)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
A&P FLIX Muscles that Act on the Ankle and Foot: An Overview
A&P FLIX Anterior Muscles that Act on the Ankle and Foot
A&P FLIX Posterior Muscles that Act on the Ankle and Foot (a)
A&P FLIX Posterior Muscles that Act on the Ankle and Foot (b)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-6 Appendicular Musculature
• The Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot
• Muscles that move the tarsals, metatarsals, and
phalanges and originate and insert only on those bones
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 11-22a Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot
Superior extensor
retinaculum
Tendon of
fibularis brevis
Medial malleolus
of tibia
Lateral malleolus
of fibula
Tendon of
tibialis anterior
Inferior extensor
retinaculum
Intrinsic Muscles
of the Great Toe
Tendons of extensor
digitorum longus
Extensor hallucis
brevis
Intrinsic Muscles
of the Foot
Abductor hallucis
Dorsal interossei
Tendon of extensor
hallucis longus
Tendons of extensor
digitorum brevis
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Dorsal view
Figure 11-22b Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot
Superficial Muscles of the
Sole of the Foot
Fibrous tendon
sheaths
Intrinsic Muscles
of the Foot
Lumbricals
Tendons of
flexor digitorum
brevis overlying
tendons of flexor
digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis brevis
Flexor digiti minimi
brevis
Abductor hallucis
Flexor digitorum brevis
Abductor digiti minimi
Plantar aponeurosis (cut)
Calcaneus
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Plantar view, superficial layer
Figure 11-22c Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot
Deep Muscles of the
Sole of the Foot
Tendons of flexor
digitorum brevis
Intrinsic Muscles
of the Foot
Lumbricals
Tendons of flexor
digitorum longus
Tendon of flexor
hallucis longus
Flexor hallucis brevis
Flexor digiti minimi
brevis
Abductor hallucis
Quadratus plantae
Flexor digitorum brevis
Abductor digiti minimi
Plantar aponeurosis (cut)
Tendon of
flexor digitorum
longus
Tendon of tibialis
posterior
Tendon of
fibularis longus
Calcaneus
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Plantar view, deep layer
Table 11-19 Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot (Figure 11–22)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-7 Effects of Aging on the Muscular System
• Effects of Aging
• Skeletal muscle fibers become smaller in diameter
• Skeletal muscles become less elastic
• Develop increasing amounts of fibrous tissue (fibrosis)
• Decreased tolerance for exercise
• Decreased ability to recover from muscular injuries
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-8 Muscular System Integration
• Cardiovascular System
• Delivers oxygen and fuel
• Removes carbon dioxide and wastes
• Respiratory System
• Responds to oxygen demand of muscles
• Integumentary System
• Disperses heat from muscle activity
• Nervous and Endocrine Systems
• Direct responses of all systems
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
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