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Gluteal muscles
 1) Gluteus maximus (L5-S2; inf gluteal n.)
 2) Tensor fasciae latae (L4-SI; sup gluteal n.)
 3) Gluteus medius (L4-SI; sup gluteal n.)
 4) Gluteus minimus (L4-SI; sup gluteal n.)
 5) Piriformes (S2,3, direct branches)
 6) Obturator internus (L4-S1, direct branches)
 7) Superior / inferior gemelli (L5-S1, direct branch)
 8) Quadratus femoris (L4-S1, direct branch)
Muscle: Lower 1
PSIS
Gluteus maximus
 origin: PSIS to tip of
Cx
coccyx
 Inserion:
 1/5 gluteal tuberosity
 rest iliotibial tract
 L5-S2; inf gluteal n.
 Extensor of thigh
Gluteal tuberosity
Iliotibial tract
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 2
Tensor fasciae latae
Iliac crest
 iliac crest behind ASIS
 iliotibial tract
 L4-SI; sup. gluteal n.
 Abductor of thigh; help
knee extension
Tensor fascia
lata
Iliotibial tract
(anterior view)
Muscle: Lower 3
Gluteus medius
 lat. surface, ilium
between ant.& post.
gluteal line
  greater trochanter
 L4-SI; sup. gluteal n.
 Abductor of thigh
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 4
Gluteus minimus
 lat. ilium between ant. &
inf. gluteal line
  greater trochanter
 L4-SI; sup. gluteal n.
 Abductor of thigh
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 5
Gluteus maximus, abductors of hip
Muscle: Lower 6
Piriformes
 ant. surface of
sacrum, through
greater sciatic
foramen
  greater
trochanter
 S2,3, direct
branches
 Abductor; Lateral
rotator
Anterior
sacrum
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 7
Piriformis and
Sciatic foramen
Piriformis
Sciatic N
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 8
Obturator internus
 med. surface of hip
bone around
Lesser
obturator foramen
sciatic f.
 Lesser sciatic
foramen (90o turn)
  greater
Greater
trochanter
trochanter
 L4-S1, direct
branches
 Abductor, Lateral
Obturator
rotator
foramen
(membrane) (posterior view) Muscle: Lower 9
Superior and
inferior gemelli
 Ischium: above and
below lesser sciatic
foramen
  greater trochanter
 Sup (obt. Int.); Inf (N
to Quadratus femoris)
 Abductor, Lateral
rotator
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 10
Quadratus femoris
 lat. ischial
tuberosity
  post. greater
trochanter
(intertrochanteric
crest)
 branch to m.
 Lateral rotator
Ischial
tuberosity
post. greater
trochanter;
intertrochanteric
crest
(posterior
view)
Muscle: Lower
11
Piriformis, Lateral rotators of Hip
 Obturator internus
 Superior / inferior gemelli
 Quadratus femoris
 common insertion near medial surface of
greater trochanter
Muscle: Lower 12
Flexors of hip
 1) Psoas major (ventral rami, L2,3)
 2) Psoas minor (ventral rami, L2,3)
 3) Iliacus (femoral n, L2-4)
 4) Pectineus (femoral n, L2-4)
 5) Sartorius (femoral n, L2-4)
Muscle: Lower 13
Psoas major
L1-L5
L1-5 body
& trans. proc
vertebrae
 lesser
trochanter
ventral rami.
L2,3
Powerful
flexor of thigh
(anterior view)
Lesser trochanter
Muscle: Lower 14
Psoas minor
(T12-)L1
(T12)-L1
vertebrae
detached upper
part of psoas
major to iliopubic
eminence
ventral rami. L1
in 50-60%
Iliopubic
eminence
(anterior view)Muscle: Lower
15
Iliacus
 pelvic surface
of ilium via
inguinal lig.
  lesser
trochanter
 femoral n.,
L2-4
 Flex thigh
 (Iliopsoas)
(anterior view)
Inguinal lig.
Lesser trochanter
Muscle: Lower 16
Pectineus
 iliopubic ramus
  just inf. to lesser
Iliopubic ramus,
Pectineal line
trochanter
 femoral n., L2-4
 Adductor
R. Femur
(ant. view)
(medial) R. Tibia
(anterior view) Muscle: Lower
17
ASIS
Sartorius
 ASIS  med. side of
upper end of tibia
 femoral n., L2-4
 Flexor of hip, Abductor
of thigh
R. Femur
(ant. view)
(medial) R. Tibia
(anterior view)Muscle: Lower
18
Adductor group of Hip
 Superficial layer:
1) Adductor longus
2) Gracilis
 Deep layer
3) Obturator externus
4) Adductor brevis
5) Adductor magnus
 obturator n. (L2-4); Add. magnus by tibial of
sciatic n. (L4-5)
Muscle: Lower 19
Adductor longus
just inf. to pubic
tubercle
 med. linea
aspera
Obturator n.
R. Femur
Adductor
Pubic tubercle
Linea aspera
(ant. view)
(medial) R. Tibia
(anterior view)
Muscle: Lower 20
Gracilis
 inf. ramus of pubis
  med. side of
tibia, post. to
R. Femur
sartorius
(ant. view)
 Main action: knee
flexor; adductor
inf. ramus
(medial) R. Tibia
(anterior view)
Muscle: Lower 21
Obturator externus
 lat. surface
obturator
membrane
  trochanteric
fossa
 Obturator n
 Lateral rotator;
Adductor
R. Femur
(ant. view)
(anterior view)
Muscle: Lower 22
Adductor brevis
inf pubic ramus
 linea aspera
(most inf to the
insertion of
adductor longus)
Obturator n
Adductor
R. Femur
(ant. view)
(medial) Tibia
(anterior view)
Muscle: Lower 23
Adductor magnus
inf. ischiopubic
ramus
 linea aspera
(lesser trochanter
to adductor
R. Femur
(ant. view)
tubercle), with
adductor hiatus
 Obturator n; Tibial
(Ant. View)
of sciatic n
(Post. View)
Adductor
adductor hiatus
Muscle: Lower 24
Femoral a., etc.
Femoral triangle
 Above: Inguinal lig.
Inguinal lig.
 Lateral: Sartorius
lat.
 Medial: Adductor
longus
 with femoral a., v.,
lymphatics in
femoral sheath
Sartorius
med.
Adductor
longus
R. Femoral △
(ant. view)
Muscle: Lower 25
Adductors of thigh
Muscle: Lower 26
Extensors of Knee
Quadriceps femoris:  patella 
tibial tuberosity
a) Rectus femoris
b) Vastus lateralis
c) Vastus medialis
d) Vastus intermedialis
e) [Articularis genus]
Muscle: Lower 27
Rectus femoris, Vastus
medialis, Vastus lateralis
 a) Rectus femoris:
AIIS 
 b) Vastus lateralis: lat.
linea aspera 
 c) Vastus medialis:
med. linea aspera 
(anterior view)
Muscle: Lower 28
Vastus intermedialis
upper 2/3 of ant.
lat. Femur
 patella
(anterior view)
Muscle: Lower 29
Quadriceps
Muscle: Lower 30
Flexors of Knee joint
1) Biceps femoris
2) Semitendinosus
3) Semimembranosus
4) Popliteus
N: tibial division of sciatic N
Muscle: Lower 31
Biceps femoris
long head: ischial
tuberosity
short head: linea
aspera
 head of fibula
Long: tibial; short:
fibular of sciatic n.
Flexor of knee;
Extensor of thigh
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 32
Semitendinosus
 ischial tuberosity
  med. aspect of upper
end of tibia (post. to
sartorius and gracilis;
deep to that of
semimembranosus)
 L5-S2: tibial of sciatic n
 Flex leg; Extend thigh
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 33
Semimembranosus
 ischial tuberosity
  fascial expansion
to post. aspect of
med. condyle of
tibia
 L5-S2: tibial of
sciatic n
 Flex knee; extend
thigh
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 34
Popliteus
tendinous origin
lat.
condyle
from lat. condyle
of femur, attaches
to lat. lemniscus
 post. aspect of
upper tibia (above
soleal line)
 L4-S1: Tibial
Flex knee
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 35
Flexors of Knee joint
1) Biceps femoris
2) Semitendinosus
3) Semimembranosus
4) Popliteus
 Action: 1-3 extend hip, flex knee
[Hamstring
muscles]; 4 is a weak flexor of knee.
Muscle: Lower 36
Dorsiflexors (deep peroneal, fibular n., L4-S1)
1) Tibialis anterior
2) Extensor digitorum longus
3) Extensor hallucis longus
4) Peroneus tertius
Muscle: Lower 37
Tibialis anterior
lat. condyle +
lat. tibia +
interosseous
membrane
 med.
cuneiform, 1st
metatarsal
(anterior view)
Muscle: Lower 38
Extensor digitorum
longus
lat. condyle, tibia
+ ant. fibula +
interosseous
memb.
 extensor
expansion, lat.4
digits
(Right, ant.- lat. view)
(anterior view)
Muscle: Lower 39
Extensors of foot
 Extensor hallucis longus:
Fibula + interosseous
memb. base of distal
phalanx of great toe
 Peroneus tertius:
Fibula base of 5th
metatarsal
(anterior view)
Muscle: Lower 40
Dorsiflexors (deep peroneal n., L4-S1)
1) Tibialis anterior
2) Extensor digitorum longus
3) Extensor hallucis longus
4) Peroneus tertius
Extensor retinaculum at the ankle
Action: in addition to dorsiflexion;
tibialis ant. inverts foot
peroneus tertius everts foot
Muscle: Lower 41
Everters of the foot
1) Peronens longus
2) Peroneus brevis
peroneal compartment
superficial peroneal n.
Muscle: Lower 42
Peronens longus
around lat. malleolus
 med. Cuneiform +
1st metatarsal (loops
at the groove for
Peroneus long on
Cuboid)
(Right, anterior view)
Muscle: Lower 43
Peroneus brevis
around lat.malleolus
 5th metatarsal
(Right, ant. – lat. view)
Muscle: Lower 44
Plantar flexors (tibial n.)
 Muscle inserting into the calcaneum
1) Gastroenemius
2) Plantaris
3) Soleus (L4-SI)
 Muscles inserting into the sole
4) Tibialis posterior (L4,5)
5) Flexor digitorum longus (L4-S1)
6) Flexor hallucis longus (L4-S1)
Muscle: Lower 45
Gastroenemius
 two heads
from femur
  calcaneal
tendon
 Tibial n. (S1, 2)
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 46
Plantaris & Soleus
 Underneath gastronemius
Plantaris: lat. condyle
of femur  calcaneum
Soleus: soleal line,
tibia, fibula calcaneal
tendon
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 47
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 48
Tibialis posterior
Interosseous mem.;
tendon around med.
malleolus
 tuberosity of
navicular +
cuneiform (med.+
intermediate)
L4,5
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 49
Flexor digitorum
longus
 medial, post. surface of
tibia
 around med. malleolus
 5 tendons, one joins
flexor hallucis longus
tendon, the others to
base of distal phalanx
of the lateral 4 digits.
 L4-S1
(posterior view)
Muscle: Lower 50
Flexor hallucis
longus
 inf. post. fibula and
interosseous
membrane; its tendon
grooves caleaneum
(sustentaculum tali)
  distal phalanx of
great toe
 L4-S1
(posterior
view)
Muscle:
Lower
51
Posterior compartment
Muscle: Lower 52
Muscles of foot: Dorsum
 Extensor digitorum brevis;
Extensor hallucis brevis
(deep peroneal n., S2-3)
 Calcaneum (ant. dorsal
surface), Inf. ext. retinaculum
  1 tendon to great toe (prox.
phalanx: extensor hallucis
brevis)
  3 tendons to 2-4 toes
(dorsal expansion)
(anterior view)
Muscle: Lower 53
Muscles of Limbs
 Joints and Digits
Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist, Fingers
Hip, Knee, Ankle, Toes
 Compartments: Anterior, Posterior, (Lateral,
Medial)
 Groups:
Extensor, Flexor
Abductor, Adductor
Rotator
Supinator, Pronator
Muscle: Lower 54
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