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Sparta and Athens
 Read pages 297-301 of your textbook.
 Create a Venn Diagram to compare Sparta and Athens
 Things to compare:
Attitude towards trade
Role of boys, men, and women
Government type
Progression of government in Athens (Who ruled/what
laws or decisions they made) - Page 300
Sparta and Athens
 Located on a fertile plain on the Peloponnesus.
 Located near a harbor of the Aegean Sea – between Asia
Minor, Africa, and Europe.
Sparta and Athens
 Trade and travel were discouraged.
 Trade with other regions made them wealthy.
 Boys went to training camps to prepare them to be strong
and disciplined.
 Turn to page 298 of your textbooks to read about Spartan
 Boys attended school in order to be well rounded citizens.
(Most boys learned their father’s trade)
 Girls trained to be strong but did not serve in the military.
 Girls studied reading, writing, arithmetic, and music at
 Women were highly respected and made their own decisions
about their homes and families.
 Women were in charge of home life.
 Forced conquered people to be helots; slavelike workers
owned by the Spartan city-state.
 1/3 of people were slaves.
 In times of peace, the government was ruled by an oligarchy
of elders whose laws were approved by an assembly of
 In times of war, 2 kings ruled; each from a different royal
 An oligarchy replaced the monarchy.
 At first, there were no recorded laws.
 New laws were proposed to an assembly, which was a
lawmaking group.
 The assembly elected 5 wealthy landowners, called ephors, to
handle day-to-day governing.
 Draco made the first recorded laws (They were very harsh,
and people fell into debt)
 Solon replaced Draco, cancelled debts and freed all people
who had sold themselves into slavery
 He set up a system that based political rights on wealth, not
 All citizens could attend assembly with a council. Decisions
were made by a majority rule.
 Women managed households and family matters
 Education was important to producing good citizens
Spartan Government
 Up to four or more helots for every citizen.
Spartan Government
 Outnumbered, the Spartans constantly feared that the helots
would rebel.
 To stay prepared to fight against the helots and Sparta’s
enemies, they lived a military life.
Spartan Government
 The oligarchy was made up of 30 elders over the age of 60.
 The assembly approved laws made by the elders and elected
the ephors.
 Although the assembly was important, the elders and the
ephors had the real power.
Spartan Daily Life
 Boys lived in training camps and learned gymnastics,
wrestling, and military exercises.
 They learned to accept hardship without complaint and obey
orders without question.
Spartan Daily Life
 Men could marry between the ages of 20 and 30, but
continued to live in the barracks until becoming citizens at
age 30. They served as soldiers until age 60.
Spartan Daily Life
 Girls also trained to be strong, but did not serve in the
 Raising children would be their main role, but they had more
freedom than women in other Greek city-states.
 Because men were often away on military duty, women
managed household and family matters.
Spartan Daily Life
 Spartan leaders feared that new ideas would bring unwanted
changes to their society.
 Because of this, citizens were rarely allowed to travel beyond
Sparta and trade with outsiders was discouraged.
Spartan Daily Life
 They followed a strict way of life, dressed plainly, and ate
simple meals.
 They also had a strong sense of honor and were trained to
never give up in battle.
 They believed there was no greater act than to die defending
their city-state.
Athenian Government
 Draco had formed tough laws, but a crisis emerged in 600
B.C. when the farmers who supplied Athens with food fell
into debt, and many had to sell themselves into slavery to
survive. (This led to anger and distrust among the poor
people of Athens.)
Athenian Government
 Solon made reforms by cancelling all debts and freeing all
Athenians who had sold themselves into slavery. He also
replaced Draco’s harsher laws with fairer ones.
Athenian Government
 He laid the foundation on which Athenian democracy was
built by allowing more people to participate in government.
 His system was based political rights on wealth, not birth.
Athenian Government
 Male citizens were divided into four classes according to
their agricultural wealth. (This included ownership of land,
grain, and olive oil.) The greater your wealth, the higher the
government position you could hold.
Athenian Government
 Men without property made up the lowest class and could
only attend the assembly and serve on juries. However,
citizens could rise to a higher class by acquiring more wealth.
Athenian Government
 All male citizens were allowed to attend the assembly in
Athens. They passed laws, elected leaders, and helped decide
court cases.
Athenian Government
 Decisions were made by majority rule – everyone got 1 vote
and the idea that got the most votes passed.
Athenian Government
 A council was established to support the assembly. They
decided what topics to discuss.
 The council was made up of 400 citizens who served one-
year terms. Every year, council members were selected in a
random drawing.
Athenian Daily Life
 Education was just as important to producing good citizens as
it was in Sparta.
 Young Athenians learned about good behavior from the fables
of Aesop.
 Turn to page 301 of your textbook to learn about Aesop’s
The Ant and the Grasshopper
The Tortoise and the Hare
The Boy Who Cried Wolf
Athenian Daily Life
 Boys studied arithmetic, reading, writing, physical education,
and the arts – painting, poetry, and music.
 Most began learning their father’s trade – bronze workers,
blacksmiths, carpenters, or potters.
Athenian Daily Life
 Girls studied reading, writing, arithmetic, and music at
home. They also learned spinning, weaving, sewing, cooking,
and childcare.
Athenian Daily Life
 About one third of people were slaves. Many were educated,
and some became doctors and teachers. Others cleaned,
cooked, farmed, and mined for silver.
Athenian Daily Life
 Neither slaves not women could participate in the Athenian
assembly, vote, or serve on juries.
Wrap Up
 Name some key differences between Athens and Sparta.