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Name ______________________
Date ____________ Period ____
AP World History Unit 1 Review
Chapters 1-5
Chapter 1 From Human Prehistory to the Early
Civilizations
Human Life Before Agriculture
Humans learned simple tool use, tamed fire, and
developed bigger brains and a more erect posture during
the _____________________________________, which
lasted from about 2.5 million years to about 12,000 BCE.
Over time, the ___________________________
species ________________________, which originated in
Africa and from which all modern humans are descended,
came to dominate other human types.
Stone ______________ gradually improved, and
humans developed _________________________, and
_____________ as they gradually spread across the glove.
In the ___________________________________,
from about 12,000-8,000 BCE, humans made more
advanced tools, fought in more wars, and increased their
population considerably.
The Neolithic Revolution
In the __________________________________,
between roughly 8,000 and 3,500 BCE, some human
societies experienced one of the most dramatic
developments in human history.
These groups mastered _____________________
(this is often called the ____________________________)
and __________________________________. These
innovations produced the _______________________ and
___________________ that made possible the founding of
cities and the increasing specialization of occupations.
At the same time, _________________________
developed, but these nomads remained on the periphery of
civilizations and sedentary agricultural zones.
Soon after the introduction of agriculture, societies
in het Middle East began ______________________stone
tools with those made of ______________ – first copper,
then bronze. These new tools improved agriculture, aided
in warfare, and benefited manufacturing artisans.
Civilization
The ______________________ occurred in many
agricultural societies. It often built on additional changes
in technology including the introduction of metal tools.
Most civilizations had common features including
____________, _______________, __________________
(especially government and religion, _________________,
and _____________. Catal Huyuk is an excellent example
of an important town in an early Neolithic civilization.
Early civilizations included those in ___________
_______________________________________________
______________________________________________.
The Heritage of the River Valley Civilizations
River Valley civilizations left a number of ______
__________________, but most ________________ after
about 1,200 BCE. This decline was often due to nomadic
migrations across Eurasia by pastoral nomadic chariot
peoples from the central Asian steppe.
A number of small population centers emerged in
the Middle East. These civilizations introduced further
innovations including the religion of ______________, the
_________________, __________________, and
extensive _______________________________ across
the Mediterranean basin.
The First Civilizations
The river valley civilizations created a basic set of
___________, ___________________________ such as
writing and mathematics, and ____________________
that persisted across three continents.
The rise of civilizations ____________________
as kings and priests tried to spread trade contacts and
cultural forms and warred to gain new territory.
Despite wars and trade, civilizations had
_____________________________ and thus developed
_____________________________________________.
Chapter 2 Classical Civilization: China
Patterns in Classical China
Three dynastic cycles cover the many centuries of
classical China: the _______________, the ___________,
and the ______________.
Political instability and frequent invasions caused
the decline of the ____________________ Dynasty and
promoted debate over China’s political and social ills.
In the last centuries of the later Zhou era, some of
China’s greatest thinkers, including _________________,
tried different ways to restore order and social harmony.
Central to culture were the family, harmony, reciprocal
social relationships, and deference to social superiors.
__________________, the brutal founder of the
________ Dynasty, centralized power in China and began
construction of the _________________________.
________________, most famous of the ______
rulers, supported Confucianism and promoted peace.
Political Institutions
For most of recorded history, the Chinese people
have been the most ____________________________
people in any large society in the world.
Political institutions became one of classical
China’s hallmarks. Among the most _________________
aspects of Chinese culture was the belief in the unity and
desirability of a _______________________ in the hands
of an ______________assisted by an ________________,
_________________________________________.
Religion and Culture
Chinese culture began coalescing during the last,
calamitous centuries of Zhou rule. During this time, three
critical secular philosophies arose, each of which
emphasized the role of _____________________ to
achieve social ends.
_____________________, an ethical system based
on relationships and personal virtue, became the
predominant philosophy.
____________________ countered Confucianism
by favoring an authoritarian state and harsh rule.
_________________ taught harmony with nature
and humble living. ______________ was Daoism’s most
popular figure.
Art in classical China was mostly decorative, and
appeared in many forms, including __________________,
carved jade and ivory, and silk screens.
Science and mathematics emphasized the practical
over the theoretical, and the ancient Chinese were
particularly adept at _____________________.
Economy and Society
China’s classical economy focused on
_________________________. All Chinese philosophies
extolled and virtues of the peasants and their world.
________________________________ between
1) the landowning aristocracy and educated bureaucrats –
Mandarins, 2) the laboring masses, peasants, and urban
artisans, and 3) the “mean” people, or those without
meaningful skills.
The state also fostered an extensive ___________,
even while maintaining some ambivalence about
merchants and commercial values.
Technological advances were plentiful, including
ox-drawn plows, water-powered mills, and ____________.
Socially China was _______________________,
___________________, and ____________________, and
tight family structure was valued.
How Chinese Civilization Fits Together
China’s ____________________________,
especially around the emergence of a Confucian
bureaucracy.
Economic innovation did not disrupt the emphasis
on order and stability, and family structures were closely
linked to political and cultural goals.
Classical Chinese civilization evolved with very
_______________________________. Though internal
disagreement existed, most Chinese saw the world as a
large island of civilization (China) surrounded by
barbarians with nothing to offer save periodic invasions.
Chapter 3 Classical Civilization: India
The Framework for Indian History : Geography and a
Formative Bond
Geography (including the ___________________
_________ and __________________________ along the
____________ and ____________________rivers) and
climate were major influences on Indian civilization.
The ________________ culture, which dominated
India after the fall of the Indus River Valley civilization,
also played a formative role. Among other things, the
Aryans brought rudiments of the ____________________.
The ____________, the __________________,
the __________________, and the ___________________
formed the basis of a great Aryan literary tradition.
Patterns in Classical India
Two major empires formed at the crucial periods
in classical Indian history, the __________________ and,
later, the ____________________.
The Greek conquest of the Indus and the exchange
of ideas with the Mediterranean basin and southwest Asia
influenced the rise of Mauryan dynasty.
______________________________ was the first
Mauryan ruler, and ______________ the greatest. Ashoka
expanded the empire and promoted __________________.
The Guptas arose after a period of nomadic
invasions, and created a long period of political stability.
Political Institutions
____________________ and _________________
dominated classical Indian political life, so central
authority was relatively weak.
The increasingly complex caste system promoted
public order the way more conventional government
structures did in many other cultures.
Religion and Culture
______________________ and Buddhism were
integral parts of classical Indian life. They had great
influence on the arts and sciences, and both tended to
promote religious tolerance.
Hinduism is a ___________________ faith that
gradually became more complex. It stresses
________________________, the shallowness of worldly
concerns, and ________________, the moral path.
Buddhism, founded by _____________________
in the 6th century B.C.E., scorned caste and the material
world in factor of self control and the Eightfold Path to
____________________.
By the last centuries BCE, the Indian civilization
developed a _________________________, built cities,
and produced art and literature, and nurtured _______ of
the great world _______________. Artistic patterns linked
to religion and a significant scientific tradition developed.
Economy and Society
Dominated by the ____________________, India
developed extensive internal commercial and international
maritime trade. However, India’s economy remained
essentially agricultural.
Family life combined ___________________ with
an emphasis on mutual emotional support.
Indian Influence
Classical India had an enormous effect on other
parts of the world. India emerged as the _____________of
a _________________________ system, a source of great
wealth and a means of exporting Indian culture abroad.
China and India
China and India offer important ______________
in political emphases, social system, and cultures.
They also __________________ each other in
seeking to build stable structures over large areas and in
using culture to _________________________.
Chapter 4 Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean:
Greece and Rome
The Persian Tradition
Founded by ___________________________, the
_____________________________ was tolerant of local
customs, developed iron technology, organized an
effective government and military, developed a new
religion (_____________________________), and
supported a great artistic tradition.
Patterns of Greek and Roman History
The rise of the dynamic ______________ of
classical Greece began around 800 BCE, reaching a high
point in the 5th century BCE when _______________
governed __________________.
Following the __________________________
between ______________ and _____________, decline
set in, but a new pattern of expansion occurred under
______________________________________. Greek
values spread widely in the ensuing ________________
period.
As Hellenism declined, Rome was emerging as an
expanding _________________, defeating Carthage in the
Punic Wars and later becoming the __________________
after the death of Julius Caesar. For roughly 200 years, the
Empire enjoyed great power and prosperity.
Despite the efforts of emperors like Diocletian and
Constantine, the ensuing 250 years brought a slow but
decisive fall.
Greek and Roman Political Institutions
Greece and Rome featured an important variety of
political forms. Both tended to emphasize ____________,
but there were significant ____________ elements as well.
In the Greek _____________, those who were
citizens participated actively in political life. In Athens,
the system of _______________________________
allowed citizens to shape policy in general assemblies.
In the Roman republic, the _______________ was
the main legislative body, but under the autocratic empire,
the Senate’s influence waned.
Later, Rome added emphasis on ________ and
created the institutions necessary to run a vast and
decentralized empire.
Religion and Culture
Greek and Roman culture did not directly generate
a lasting major religion, though _________________ arose
in the classical Mediterranean context. Greco-Roman
religion used epic poems and mythology to explore human
foibles and passions.
An emphasis on ________________, especially in
__________________, science, and a strong artistic and
architectural tradition, permeated classical Mediterranean
culture.
________________, ___________, and ________
are the most well-known Greek philosophers.
Economy and Society in the Mediterranean
Greek and Roman societies mirrored many
standard social features of an _______________________,
including a large peasantry and a land-owning aristocracy,
and dependence on trade and commerce.
Differing versions of the ___________________
family existed in both Greek and Roman culture.
Distinctive features included ___________ and a
slightly less progressive attitude toward women than was
true in classical China.
Toward the Fall of Rome
Rome began to decline after about 180 CE.
Symptoms were gradual, including loss of territory and
economic reversals.
Ultimately___________________ periodically
raided Rome until the empire finally collapsed.
The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and
Declines by 500 C.E.
Expansion and Integration
Common themes for the classical civilization
involve _____________________________ and related
efforts to integrate the new territories.
China united through ___________________,
India united through ________________, and the
Mediterranean world united through _________________
______________________.
Integration required territorial and social cohesion.
Each civilization valued social distinctions.
Beyond the Classical Civilizations
Outside the centers of civilization important
developments occurred. Significant civilizations operated
in _______________________ (the Olmecs, Maya, and
Incas) and also in _________(Kush, Axum, and Ethiopia).
Agriculture and other developments spread across
northern Europe and northern Asia, where semi-civilized
peoples developed extensive contacts with older
civilizations.
Nomadic societies played a vital role, particularly
in central Asia, in linking and occasionally disrupting
classical civilizations. Important popular migrations across
Eurasia led to the rise of new cultures.
Decline in China and India
A combination of ______________________ and
___________________________ led to important
changes, first in China, and then in India.
The central Asian nomadic ______________
attacked all three classical civilizations.
About 100 C.E., the Han dynasty began a serious
decline. Weakened central government, social unrest lead
by overtaxed peasants, and epidemics were the most
prominent sources of decline, combining to make the
government unable to stop invading nomads.
However, by 600, China revived, first with the
brief Sui dynasty and later (and more gloriously) with the
_________________.
The decline in India was not as drastic as in China.
By, 600, Huns destroyed the Gupta Empire. For several
centuries, no native Indian led a large state there.
Hinduism gained ground as Buddhism, unappealing to the
warrior caste, declined.
After 600, Islam entered India and ____________
took control of Indian trade routes. What survived was
Hinduism (Islam never gained adherence from a majority
of the population) and the caste system.
Decline and Fall in Rome
Decline in Rome was particularly complex.
Although its causes have been much debated, certain
issues may have contributed: population declined,
leadership faltered, the economy flagged, tax collection
became more difficult, a series of plagues swept the
empire, and a sense of despondency pervaded much of the
citizenry.
When __________________ invaded in the 400s,
there was little power or will to resist.
Developments also varied between the eastern and
western portions of the Empire, as the Mediterranean
world fell apart. The eastern, or ____________________,
continued for another 1,000 years after the western empire
collapsed.
The New Religious Map
The period of classical decline saw the _______
_____________________ of Buddhism and Christianity.
This religious change had wider cultural, social, and
political implication.
Later, Islam ___________________________,
following the previous spread of Hinduism across south
and southeast Asia.
The World Around 500 C.E.
Developments around 500 C.E. produced _____
major themes for world history in subsequent periods.
First, there was a ___________________ of
classical civilizations. Societies across Eurasia faced the
task of reviving or reworking their key institutions and
values after decline and invasion.
Second, ______________________________
______________________. These would form the basis of
future civilizations.
Finally, new developments across the globe,
whether through indigenous developments or contacts with
older centers led ________________________________.