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Name ______________________ Date ____________ Period ____ AP World History Unit 1 Review Chapters 1-5 Chapter 1 From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations Human Life Before Agriculture Humans learned simple tool use, tamed fire, and developed bigger brains and a more erect posture during the _____________________________________, which lasted from about 2.5 million years to about 12,000 BCE. Over time, the ___________________________ species ________________________, which originated in Africa and from which all modern humans are descended, came to dominate other human types. Stone ______________ gradually improved, and humans developed _________________________, and _____________ as they gradually spread across the glove. In the ___________________________________, from about 12,000-8,000 BCE, humans made more advanced tools, fought in more wars, and increased their population considerably. The Neolithic Revolution In the __________________________________, between roughly 8,000 and 3,500 BCE, some human societies experienced one of the most dramatic developments in human history. These groups mastered _____________________ (this is often called the ____________________________) and __________________________________. These innovations produced the _______________________ and ___________________ that made possible the founding of cities and the increasing specialization of occupations. At the same time, _________________________ developed, but these nomads remained on the periphery of civilizations and sedentary agricultural zones. Soon after the introduction of agriculture, societies in het Middle East began ______________________stone tools with those made of ______________ – first copper, then bronze. These new tools improved agriculture, aided in warfare, and benefited manufacturing artisans. Civilization The ______________________ occurred in many agricultural societies. It often built on additional changes in technology including the introduction of metal tools. Most civilizations had common features including ____________, _______________, __________________ (especially government and religion, _________________, and _____________. Catal Huyuk is an excellent example of an important town in an early Neolithic civilization. Early civilizations included those in ___________ _______________________________________________ ______________________________________________. The Heritage of the River Valley Civilizations River Valley civilizations left a number of ______ __________________, but most ________________ after about 1,200 BCE. This decline was often due to nomadic migrations across Eurasia by pastoral nomadic chariot peoples from the central Asian steppe. A number of small population centers emerged in the Middle East. These civilizations introduced further innovations including the religion of ______________, the _________________, __________________, and extensive _______________________________ across the Mediterranean basin. The First Civilizations The river valley civilizations created a basic set of ___________, ___________________________ such as writing and mathematics, and ____________________ that persisted across three continents. The rise of civilizations ____________________ as kings and priests tried to spread trade contacts and cultural forms and warred to gain new territory. Despite wars and trade, civilizations had _____________________________ and thus developed _____________________________________________. Chapter 2 Classical Civilization: China Patterns in Classical China Three dynastic cycles cover the many centuries of classical China: the _______________, the ___________, and the ______________. Political instability and frequent invasions caused the decline of the ____________________ Dynasty and promoted debate over China’s political and social ills. In the last centuries of the later Zhou era, some of China’s greatest thinkers, including _________________, tried different ways to restore order and social harmony. Central to culture were the family, harmony, reciprocal social relationships, and deference to social superiors. __________________, the brutal founder of the ________ Dynasty, centralized power in China and began construction of the _________________________. ________________, most famous of the ______ rulers, supported Confucianism and promoted peace. Political Institutions For most of recorded history, the Chinese people have been the most ____________________________ people in any large society in the world. Political institutions became one of classical China’s hallmarks. Among the most _________________ aspects of Chinese culture was the belief in the unity and desirability of a _______________________ in the hands of an ______________assisted by an ________________, _________________________________________. Religion and Culture Chinese culture began coalescing during the last, calamitous centuries of Zhou rule. During this time, three critical secular philosophies arose, each of which emphasized the role of _____________________ to achieve social ends. _____________________, an ethical system based on relationships and personal virtue, became the predominant philosophy. ____________________ countered Confucianism by favoring an authoritarian state and harsh rule. _________________ taught harmony with nature and humble living. ______________ was Daoism’s most popular figure. Art in classical China was mostly decorative, and appeared in many forms, including __________________, carved jade and ivory, and silk screens. Science and mathematics emphasized the practical over the theoretical, and the ancient Chinese were particularly adept at _____________________. Economy and Society China’s classical economy focused on _________________________. All Chinese philosophies extolled and virtues of the peasants and their world. ________________________________ between 1) the landowning aristocracy and educated bureaucrats – Mandarins, 2) the laboring masses, peasants, and urban artisans, and 3) the “mean” people, or those without meaningful skills. The state also fostered an extensive ___________, even while maintaining some ambivalence about merchants and commercial values. Technological advances were plentiful, including ox-drawn plows, water-powered mills, and ____________. Socially China was _______________________, ___________________, and ____________________, and tight family structure was valued. How Chinese Civilization Fits Together China’s ____________________________, especially around the emergence of a Confucian bureaucracy. Economic innovation did not disrupt the emphasis on order and stability, and family structures were closely linked to political and cultural goals. Classical Chinese civilization evolved with very _______________________________. Though internal disagreement existed, most Chinese saw the world as a large island of civilization (China) surrounded by barbarians with nothing to offer save periodic invasions. Chapter 3 Classical Civilization: India The Framework for Indian History : Geography and a Formative Bond Geography (including the ___________________ _________ and __________________________ along the ____________ and ____________________rivers) and climate were major influences on Indian civilization. The ________________ culture, which dominated India after the fall of the Indus River Valley civilization, also played a formative role. Among other things, the Aryans brought rudiments of the ____________________. The ____________, the __________________, the __________________, and the ___________________ formed the basis of a great Aryan literary tradition. Patterns in Classical India Two major empires formed at the crucial periods in classical Indian history, the __________________ and, later, the ____________________. The Greek conquest of the Indus and the exchange of ideas with the Mediterranean basin and southwest Asia influenced the rise of Mauryan dynasty. ______________________________ was the first Mauryan ruler, and ______________ the greatest. Ashoka expanded the empire and promoted __________________. The Guptas arose after a period of nomadic invasions, and created a long period of political stability. Political Institutions ____________________ and _________________ dominated classical Indian political life, so central authority was relatively weak. The increasingly complex caste system promoted public order the way more conventional government structures did in many other cultures. Religion and Culture ______________________ and Buddhism were integral parts of classical Indian life. They had great influence on the arts and sciences, and both tended to promote religious tolerance. Hinduism is a ___________________ faith that gradually became more complex. It stresses ________________________, the shallowness of worldly concerns, and ________________, the moral path. Buddhism, founded by _____________________ in the 6th century B.C.E., scorned caste and the material world in factor of self control and the Eightfold Path to ____________________. By the last centuries BCE, the Indian civilization developed a _________________________, built cities, and produced art and literature, and nurtured _______ of the great world _______________. Artistic patterns linked to religion and a significant scientific tradition developed. Economy and Society Dominated by the ____________________, India developed extensive internal commercial and international maritime trade. However, India’s economy remained essentially agricultural. Family life combined ___________________ with an emphasis on mutual emotional support. Indian Influence Classical India had an enormous effect on other parts of the world. India emerged as the _____________of a _________________________ system, a source of great wealth and a means of exporting Indian culture abroad. China and India China and India offer important ______________ in political emphases, social system, and cultures. They also __________________ each other in seeking to build stable structures over large areas and in using culture to _________________________. Chapter 4 Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean: Greece and Rome The Persian Tradition Founded by ___________________________, the _____________________________ was tolerant of local customs, developed iron technology, organized an effective government and military, developed a new religion (_____________________________), and supported a great artistic tradition. Patterns of Greek and Roman History The rise of the dynamic ______________ of classical Greece began around 800 BCE, reaching a high point in the 5th century BCE when _______________ governed __________________. Following the __________________________ between ______________ and _____________, decline set in, but a new pattern of expansion occurred under ______________________________________. Greek values spread widely in the ensuing ________________ period. As Hellenism declined, Rome was emerging as an expanding _________________, defeating Carthage in the Punic Wars and later becoming the __________________ after the death of Julius Caesar. For roughly 200 years, the Empire enjoyed great power and prosperity. Despite the efforts of emperors like Diocletian and Constantine, the ensuing 250 years brought a slow but decisive fall. Greek and Roman Political Institutions Greece and Rome featured an important variety of political forms. Both tended to emphasize ____________, but there were significant ____________ elements as well. In the Greek _____________, those who were citizens participated actively in political life. In Athens, the system of _______________________________ allowed citizens to shape policy in general assemblies. In the Roman republic, the _______________ was the main legislative body, but under the autocratic empire, the Senate’s influence waned. Later, Rome added emphasis on ________ and created the institutions necessary to run a vast and decentralized empire. Religion and Culture Greek and Roman culture did not directly generate a lasting major religion, though _________________ arose in the classical Mediterranean context. Greco-Roman religion used epic poems and mythology to explore human foibles and passions. An emphasis on ________________, especially in __________________, science, and a strong artistic and architectural tradition, permeated classical Mediterranean culture. ________________, ___________, and ________ are the most well-known Greek philosophers. Economy and Society in the Mediterranean Greek and Roman societies mirrored many standard social features of an _______________________, including a large peasantry and a land-owning aristocracy, and dependence on trade and commerce. Differing versions of the ___________________ family existed in both Greek and Roman culture. Distinctive features included ___________ and a slightly less progressive attitude toward women than was true in classical China. Toward the Fall of Rome Rome began to decline after about 180 CE. Symptoms were gradual, including loss of territory and economic reversals. Ultimately___________________ periodically raided Rome until the empire finally collapsed. The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E. Expansion and Integration Common themes for the classical civilization involve _____________________________ and related efforts to integrate the new territories. China united through ___________________, India united through ________________, and the Mediterranean world united through _________________ ______________________. Integration required territorial and social cohesion. Each civilization valued social distinctions. Beyond the Classical Civilizations Outside the centers of civilization important developments occurred. Significant civilizations operated in _______________________ (the Olmecs, Maya, and Incas) and also in _________(Kush, Axum, and Ethiopia). Agriculture and other developments spread across northern Europe and northern Asia, where semi-civilized peoples developed extensive contacts with older civilizations. Nomadic societies played a vital role, particularly in central Asia, in linking and occasionally disrupting classical civilizations. Important popular migrations across Eurasia led to the rise of new cultures. Decline in China and India A combination of ______________________ and ___________________________ led to important changes, first in China, and then in India. The central Asian nomadic ______________ attacked all three classical civilizations. About 100 C.E., the Han dynasty began a serious decline. Weakened central government, social unrest lead by overtaxed peasants, and epidemics were the most prominent sources of decline, combining to make the government unable to stop invading nomads. However, by 600, China revived, first with the brief Sui dynasty and later (and more gloriously) with the _________________. The decline in India was not as drastic as in China. By, 600, Huns destroyed the Gupta Empire. For several centuries, no native Indian led a large state there. Hinduism gained ground as Buddhism, unappealing to the warrior caste, declined. After 600, Islam entered India and ____________ took control of Indian trade routes. What survived was Hinduism (Islam never gained adherence from a majority of the population) and the caste system. Decline and Fall in Rome Decline in Rome was particularly complex. Although its causes have been much debated, certain issues may have contributed: population declined, leadership faltered, the economy flagged, tax collection became more difficult, a series of plagues swept the empire, and a sense of despondency pervaded much of the citizenry. When __________________ invaded in the 400s, there was little power or will to resist. Developments also varied between the eastern and western portions of the Empire, as the Mediterranean world fell apart. The eastern, or ____________________, continued for another 1,000 years after the western empire collapsed. The New Religious Map The period of classical decline saw the _______ _____________________ of Buddhism and Christianity. This religious change had wider cultural, social, and political implication. Later, Islam ___________________________, following the previous spread of Hinduism across south and southeast Asia. The World Around 500 C.E. Developments around 500 C.E. produced _____ major themes for world history in subsequent periods. First, there was a ___________________ of classical civilizations. Societies across Eurasia faced the task of reviving or reworking their key institutions and values after decline and invasion. Second, ______________________________ ______________________. These would form the basis of future civilizations. Finally, new developments across the globe, whether through indigenous developments or contacts with older centers led ________________________________.