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Huawei WLAN Indoor Distributed Network Planning and
Design Solution
<<<<<<< Linkbar star>>>>>>>
Channel Materials
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<<<<<<<tab title starting>>>>>>
Case Introduction
Scenario Characteristics
<<<<<<<tab title ending>>>>>>>
WLAN planning process:
Demand Collection
<<<<<<<table starting>>>>>>>
Demand Type
Key coverage areas required by customers and common
Coverage area
coverage areas
Requirements on the signal field strength of coverage areas.
Field strength requirement
Customers that have strong technical capabilities may have
special requirements.
Number of access users
The number of users who access the network simultaneously.
Major service types planned by customers and each user's
Bandwidth requirement
requirement on bandwidth.
Understand whether customers have clear requirements on
Power supply mode
the power supply mode and which types of power supply
facilities and areas on the site are available.
Switch location
Location of wired-side switches on the WLAN network
If WLAN signals are combined on the existing indoor
Original indoor distributed
distributed network, you need to understand the distribution
network topology and its
structure of the original distributed network and frequency
bands the original components support.
<<<<<<<table ending>>>>>>>
1. Detailed drawings of the coverage area are the basic requirement.
2. Different projects have different requirements. The preceding requirements are the basic requirements of most
projects. If customers have any special requirements, the requirements must be taken into consideration.
Site Survey Information
Based on different scenarios and requirements, site surveys are classified into simple site surveys and detailed site
surveys with consideration of the investment cost.
Simple site survey: Applicable to simple scenarios or some pre-sales projects that do not have detailed
requirements on the solution.
Detailed site survey: Applicable to complex scenarios or post-sales network planning projects that have high
requirements on the solution.
<<<<<<<table starting>>>>>>>
Type and specifications of obstacles. For example, common brick
Major obstacles in the
walls are 240 mm thick.
coverage area
Obstacles in most scenarios are already considered in network
planning tools.
Information provided by drawings is limited and not visual. You
Coverage area
need to take photos of a coverage area's onsite layout and
structure, for example, walls and ceilings.
Whether APs can be deployed. The distance between an AP and a
switch. The distance between an AP and a power supply point.
Construction feasibility
Whether cable layout between an AP and a switch, and an AP
and a power supply point is feasible.
<<<<<<<table ending>>>>>>>
Planning and Design
Since different projects have different scenarios and requirements, there may be differences between the network
planning solutions and focuses. Based on project support experience, planning of most indoor distributed scenarios
is considered from three steps: capacity/coverage design, indoor distributed network design, and deployment
Capacity/Coverage Design
Capacity design:
1. The number of access users depends on the number of APs. You can only extend the signal coverage of
antennas, but cannot increase the user capacity.
2. Indoor distributed APs support only the single data flow mode. The traffic rate of a single AP is 40 Mbps.
3. It is recommended the type and proportion of terminals be considered to determine the capacity.
Coverage design:
Coverage distance of antennas must be determined by taking the building structure into consideration.
Recommendations are as follows:
1. Dormitory rooms, hotel rooms, and hospital wards: 10 m
2. Teaching buildings, science and technology buildings, laboratory building, libraries, and commercial centers: 15
3. Large-sized stadiums, exhibition halls, waiting halls, underground garages, and open indoor areas: 25 m
Indoor Distributed Network Design
Combination with a carrier's indoor distributed system:
WLAN signals are combined into a carrier's indoor distributed system through a combiner to use the same set of
indoor distributed components with the carrier's system. WLAN signals and GSM, CDMA, and 3G signals are not
in the same frequency band. In addition, the combiner has a high isolation. Therefore, there is no interference
between signals in different frequency bands.
1. The existing indoor distributed components (power splitters, couplers, and antennas) must support the 2.4 GHz
frequency band of WLAN. If not, the indoor distributed components must be replaced.
2. Link budget must be performed to check whether the antenna power meets the requirement of WLAN coverage.
If not, links must be rectified.
3. AP Indoor distributed APs must be in a parallel topology relationship. Multiple APs cannot be cascaded in one
4. The combiner must have a high isolation which should be larger than 90 dB to prevent interference between 2G
and 3G signals.
New independent WLAN indoor distributed system:
Scenario characteristics:
1. The deployment environment (such as hotel rooms and hospital wards) is closed.
2. Users are dispersedly distributed and have requirements for a certain amount of network access traffic.
Network construction principles:
1. A single AP is connected to a number of 4 to 8 antennas, which is the optimal number. It is recommended that a
single AP be connected to a maximum of 10 antennas.
2. Usually, the distance between an AP and an indoor distributed antenna should be within 50 m. The maximum
distance is recommended to be 60 m.
3. It is recommended that the output power of each antenna be the same in each indoor distributed scenario. The
output power should be within 12 dBm to 18 dBm. The specific power is related to field strength and wall
4. 8m Distance between antennas connected to the same AP should not be too close. Otherwise, signals of two
antennas may interfere with each other. Usually, the distance is longer than 8 m.
5. Allocation proportion of each antenna's output power depends on couplers and power splitters. When the indoor
distributed feeder topology is determined, the output power of each antenna is determined by the output power of
(WLAN over CATV) WoC
WLAN and CATV signals are imported to the existing CATV cables using a combiner and transmitted to rooms
using CATV coaxial shielded cables. These signals are finally divided by splitter panels. This implements wireless
network coverage and TV signal transmission. The entire WoC construction does not need much change, and the
construction impact can be neglected. The WoC system has striking advantages in the wireless system
reconstruction project.
1. The CATV signal's frequency band is 860 MHz. Indoor distributed components must support both frequency
bands of CATV and WLAN.
2. Signal combiners and WoC panels must be customized from the third-party device vendors.
3. Currently, CATV cables are SY(W)V-75-5 coaxial cables that are dedicated for CATVs. The signal attenuation
of 2.4 GHz signal transmission is 50dB/100 m.
4. It is recommended that the length of lines between the AP and the WoC panel be within 50 m.
Deployment Design
AP deployment:
1. APs are deployed weak electricity rooms, power distribution rooms, and corridor walls. It is recommended that
APs be installed on walls with interfaces facing the ground.
2. The distance between APs should be longer than 30 cm. APs cannot be installed in a stack. This ensures normal
heat dissipation.
3. Ensure that RF cables of APs can be smoothly and firmly connected.
4. Prevent cables from being twisted with each other when multiple APs are installed. Connector cables cannot be
pulled too much by RF cables and bend too much.
5. The diversity antenna mode is prevented from being setting in indoor antenna applications. A fixed antenna
mode must be specified.
6. Prevent water drips and rat′s urine from causing device faults in an installation scenario. APs can be installed in
a cabinet if possible.
Combiner, power splitter, and coupler deployment:
1. When WLAN signals are combined into the old indoor distributed system, pay attention to the frequency range
supported by the couplers, splitters, and antennas. If they do not support 2.4 GHz, feeder components must be
2. After the indoor distributed system is installed, test the Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), which is
required to be less than 1.5.
3. Passive components must be fixed by using ribbons and fasteners.
4. Antenna connectors must be tightly connected to power splitters and couplers.
Antenna deployment:
1. Omnidirectional ceiling-mount antennas must be installed on ceilings or in non-metal ceilings.
2. When installed on metal ceilings, the antennas must be exposed outside. The antennas can be installed in
gypsum ceilings.
3. The antennas cannot be randomly placed and must be vertically installed to ensure beams evenly cover the
specified area.
4. In areas where no ceiling is available, the antennas must be fixed using a support.
5. Indoor distributed antennas must be installed at locations where the antennas can be prevented from being
sheltered by a building's cross beams. This prevents signal attenuation caused by a building's cross beams in the
coverage area.
RF cable deployment:
1. Select 1/2-inch coaxial cables as RF cables. When the transmission distance is longer than 50 m, select 7/8-inch
coaxial cables.
2. The bending radius of antennas must comply with technical indicators of antennas.
3. The indoor distributed network topology is planned based on the principle of shortest signal transmission length
to prevent signal attenuation caused by cable transmission.
4. Trunk feeders are protected using cable troughs. In scenarios without ceiling, branch feeders are protected using
PVC tubes, and cables are fixed using line codes. When cables are laid out in ceilings, there is no need to use PVC
5. Both sides of each feeder and each device must be labeled. The device's name and serial number and the feeder's
direction must be marked on the label based on the identifier of design files.
Channel deployment:
1. Make confirmations with customers that local channels are available.
2. The same indoor distributed AP is connected to the same channel of signals sent by antennas.
3. Prevent co-channel interference: The same channel cannot be used in any two directions.
Scenario Introduction:
A university plans to provide network access services for students living in a dormitory building that has a high
user density. Usually, indoor distributed and indoor settled APs can be sued. This scenario uses indoor distributed
APs because the user capacity is large.
Scenario characteristics: 1. A large number of users; 2. A large amount of data traffic
Focuses of planning: Signal coverage and user capacity must be considered at the same time during WLAN
Planning Procedure:
Requirement collection: Identifies key coverage areas and collects numbers of access users; Understand the
building structure and wall materials.
Capacity/Coverage design: Determine the number and type of antennas based on the number of access users. The
diversity antenna mode is prevented from being setting in indoor antenna applications. A fixed antenna mode must
be specified.
Indoor distributed network design: WLAN signals can be combined into a carrier's indoor distributed system
(through negotiation with the carrier). Additionally, an independent WLAN indoor distributed system can be built.
Channel planning: The AP channel of a building floor and that of the adjacent floor are distributed in cross-over
mode to reduce co-channel interference.
Installation mode: It is recommended that APs be installed on walls with interfaces of the APs facing the ground.
Distance between the APs must be longer than 30 m.
Power supply mode:PoE power is preferentially selected.
Antenna selection: When the signal attenuation is low (such as through wooden doors and windows), select
omnidirectional antennas. When the signal attenuation is high (such as through iron doors and cement walls),
select directional antennas.
As shown in the preceding figure, there are 24 rooms on each floor of the dormitory building, with a total of 96
users. The number of concurrent users is 24.
Obstacle partition: The dormitory building has a reinforced concrete structure. Rooms with wooden doors and
windows are at both sides of the corridor.
Coverage design: There are two branches on this floor. Each branch combines signals of one 500 mW 802.11n AP.
A total of six omnidirectional ceiling-mounting antennas are used, with each antenna covering four rooms.
Channel planning:Channels 1, 6, and 11 of this floor are set in cross-over mode.
Installation mode: Installed at the top of the corridor wall.
Power supply mode: PoE switches provide power for the entire building.
Indoor distributed products are applicable to the following typical scenarios.
The following table lists some special focuses of the typical scenarios in addition to planning principles and steps
described in the preceding sections.
<<<<<<<table starting>>>>>>>
Typical Scenario
Scenario Characteristics
Solution Characteristics
1. Takes both signal coverage
1. Rooms at one side of the
and user capacity into
corridor, rooms on both sides of
consideration. Reasonably
the corridor, and apartments
designs the trunk and branches
2. WLAN signals have difficulty
of the indoor distributed
in traversing the dormitory room
2. Reasonably selects the type
3. High user density, a large
of antennas.
number of users, and a large
3. Imports WLAN signals to
amount of data traffic
rooms in wireless mode based
Dormitory building at
a university
on certain conditions.
1. Signal coverage is the focus
1. Uses solid walls to isolate rooms
of WLAN construction.
at both sides of the corridor.
2. Reasonably selects the type
2. A small number of access users
of antennas.
and a small number of concurrent
3. Installs antennas at the
corridors to allow signals to
Hospital's inpatient
area/Hotel rooms
traverse only a wall.
<<<<<<<table ending>>>>>>>