Download LEAD Toolkit Deck

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Food studies wikipedia, lookup

Nutrition wikipedia, lookup

Food choice wikipedia, lookup

Food politics wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
AGRICULTURE TODAY:
SEED TO SHOPPING CART
Thank you for your interest in sharing more about
agriculture today.
The enclosed presentation is designed to be
customized for your needs by incorporating your
organization’s logo and/or adding or removing
slides.
Please contact Milton Stokes at
[email protected] with questions or
further context about the slide content.
PRESENTER’S NOTE
Presenter Notes
Our Planet Faces Some
Real Challenges
Growing enough for
a growing world
9.6B+
7.1B
4.4B
1980
TODAY
2050
Global Population
Source: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/
STATISTICS
Rising Population
14%
A growing global middle
class is choosing animal
protein – meat, eggs, and
dairy – as a larger part of
their diets.
9%
1965
2030
Percentage of Dietary
Protein
Source: UN FAO Food Balance Sheet, World Health Organization Global and regional food consumption patterns and trends”
STATISTICS
Changing Economies and Diets
Farmers will need to produce
enough food
with fewer resources
to support our
world population.
1
<1/3
1961
2050
Acres Per Person
Source: The World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO-STAT), Monsanto Internal Calculations
STATISTICS
Limited Farmland
STATISTICS
Changing Climate
Farmers are impacted
by climate change
in many ways:
WATER AVAILABILITY ISSUES
INCREASINGLY
UNPREDICTABLE WEATHER
INSECT RANGE EXPANSION
WEED PRESSURE CHANGES
CROP DISEASE INCREASES
PLANTING ZONE SHIFTS
Source: US Third National Climate Assessment (2013)
A Broad Range
of Solutions
Making a balanced meal accessible
for everyone, and doing it in a
sustainable way requires a wide
range of ideas and resources.
AG INNOVATION
Collaborative Innovation
At any stage, plants are
threatened by weeds, insects
and diseases.
Researchers look at the issues
that might affect future crop
growth and create solutions
to help protect plant health
and minimize environmental
impact.
AG INNOVATION
Protection from Weeds, Insects
and Diseases
Precision Agriculture
Plant Breeding
Vegetable Breeding
Biotechnology
Microbials
Crop Protection
AG INNOVATION
Solutions for Sustainable
Agriculture
Farmer considerations:
PLANNING
General Farm
Planning
Weed Control
Program
Row Spacing
Variety/Hybrid
Selection
Refuge Options
Plant Population
Seed Treatment
Soil Insecticides
HARVEST
PRE-PLANTING
PLANTING
IN-SEASON
Pre-Plant Irrigation
Seed Depth
Weed Control
Fertility Program
Planting Speed
Through the Field
Keep Stand or
Re-Plant
Post-Emergent
Herbicide
Application
Disease Control
pH Management
Burn-Down
Program
Tillage Level
Primary
Tillage Program
Other Planting
Operation Decisions
Starter Fertilizer
Herbicide Application
Foliar Insect Control
Fertility Program
Soil Insecticides
Foliar Disease
Control
Fungicide Application
Irrigation Application
In-Furrow
Insect Control
AG INNOVATION
Precision Agriculture Helps Farmers
Manage Multiple Decisions Every Season
AG INNOVATION
Plant Breeding
Teosinte to Today’s Corn
Mustard to Today’s Cauliflower & Broccoli
Breeding has been ongoing since the dawn of agriculture.
As our understanding of the genome has evolved,
we’ve improved our efficiency and accuracy in breeding.
AG INNOVATION
Many of the Foods We Eat Are a Result
of Breeding Innovation
AG INNOVATION
Crop Domestication is
Genetic Modification
In the late 20th century,
advances in technology
enabled the expansion of
diversity of crops. For years,
university, government and
company scientists
intensively researched and
refined this process. A major
result has been GM seeds
that maintain or increase the
yield of crops while requiring
less land and fewer inputs,
both of which lessen the
impact of agriculture on the
environment and reduce
costs for farmers.
Breeding Biofortification is a process of breeding
food crops that are rich in micronutrients, such as
vitamin A, zinc, and iron.
+ Vitamin A
•
•
•
•
Bananas/plantains
Cassava
Maize
Pumpkin
+ Iron
• Beans/lentils
• Irish potato
• Wheat
AG INNOVATION
Breeding Biofortification
Vegetables are among the most nutritious foods available,
but taste, texture and convenience are keys to
increasing consumption.
Sensory Experience
Convenience
Nutrition & Health
Source: Mon Veg Consumer Research (2008) US & EU-5 Consumer Preference for Fresh Vegetables
VEGETABLE BREEDING
What Goes into a Great Vegetable
Farmers have intentionally
changed the genetic
makeup of all the crops they
have grown and the
livestock they have raised
since domestic agriculture
began 10,000 years ago.
Every fruit, vegetable and
grain that is commercially
available today has been
altered by human hands,
including organic and
heirloom seeds.
AG INNOVATION
The Evolution of Crop Improvement
Building on Genetic Diversity
Wild tomato traits bred into commercial
varieties for sweeter taste
VEGETABLE BREEDING
Improved Flavor and Color
Builds Consumer Appeal
Advanced breeding gives pepper varieties resistance to
one of the most destructive diseases
VEGETABLE BREEDING
Phytopthora Resistant Peppers are
Improving Crop Production
This
watermelon
loses much
less juice, so
is less messy
when slicing,
eating and
storing after it
is cut.
Ideal for
fresh-cut
halves,
quarters,
slices and
cubes.
VEGETABLE BREEDING
Extended Quality Watermelon
Better Value
One third the size of standard bell peppers,
at an equally affordable price point
Sweet Tasting & Crunchy
BellaFina® peppers are small in stature,
but their sweet flavor and crunchy
texture are every bit as appealing
as traditional colored bell peppers.
Nutritious
Excellent source of vitamin C
VEGETABLE BREEDING
Sweet Tasting, More Convenient Mini
Bell Peppers
A Sweet Tasting Lettuce
Very low in bitterness and crunchier
than traditional Romaine
Greener Color and More Flavor
Compared to iceberg
Nutritious
246% of the folate and 174% of the
Vitamin C in ordinary iceberg lettuce
VEGETABLE BREEDING
Building Better Salads and Wraps
with Frescada® Lettuce
Biotechnology and
Genetically Modified Crops
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
Biotechnology is Used in
Many Common Products
Enzymes
Yeast
Nearly all cheese is
made using rennet
produced through
biotechnology
Scientists use
biotechnology
to create unique
yeast strains for
use in brewing beer
and making bread
Medicine
Most insulin used
by diabetics is
produced through
biotechnology
Traditional Plant Breeding
Desired
Gene
Many Genes are
Transferred
Plant Biotechnology
Desired
Gene
Desired
Gene
Only Selected Gene
is Transferred
“GMO”
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
Plant Biotechnology is an Extension of
Traditional Plant Breeding
Source: www.GMOAnswers.com
GMOs are the product of a specific type of plant breeding
where precise changes are made to a plant’s DNA to give it
characteristics that cannot be achieved through traditional
plant breeding methods.
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
Ways to
have Better
Harvests
https://www.youtube.com/user/MonsantoCo/videos
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
What is a GMO?
Step 1: Trait Identification
Fun fact:
For every one trait
that is brought to
market, more than
6,000 others are
screened and
tested.
Scientists conduct research to identify the specific genes
responsible for beneficial traits that make crops resistant to
disease, pests or drought.
Source: http://croplife.org/biotech-crop-development/
LIFE CYCLE OF A GMO : TRAIT IDENTIFICATION
The GMO Process
Step 2: Transformation
Fun fact:
There are many
ways to
transform a cell.
One common
method uses
agrobacterium a natural bacteria
that can pass on
genes to plants.
Once the desired gene has been identified, scientists transfer the
gene into a plant seed. The result is a genetically modified
organism or GMO. Researchers can also turn off or move a gene
within a plant to create a GMO.
Source: http://croplife.org/biotech-crop-development/
LIFE CYCLE OF A GMO : TRANSFORMATION
The GMO Process
Step 3: Regulatory Science
Although the regulatory review process begins here, it will continue
throughout the GMO process and carry on through the life cycle of
the product.
Safe to grow
•
Crop exhibits expected
characteristics (e.g., insect
resistance)
Safe for the environment and
beneficial insects
Safe to eat
•
•
Same nutrients as non-GM
crops
No new dietary allergens
Fun fact:
A new biotech
seed product
takes an average
of 13 years and
$130 million in
R&D before
coming to
market.
More than 75 different studies are performed on each new biotech
product before commercialization to ensure that they are safe for
people, animals and the environment.1
1 Source: http://croplife.org/biotech-crop-development/
LIFE CYCLE OF A GMO : REGULATORY SCIENCE
The GMO Process
Step 4: Greenhouse Testing
Fun fact:
Only after several
years of rigorous
testing are the top
performing plants
and traits selected
to advance to field
testing and further
regulatory review.
After a GMO is developed in the lab, the seedlings are moved to
greenhouses where further tests are performed.
Source: http://croplife.org/biotech-crop-development/
LIFE CYCLE OF A GMO : GREENHOUSE TESTING
The GMO Process
Step 5: Field Testing
Fun fact:
More than 90
government bodies
globally review and
approve GMOs. In
many countries,
multiple agencies are
involved in the
regulation of GMOs.
Field trials are an important part of developing new products.
They provide critical scientific and performance data and
information.
Source: http://croplife.org/biotech-crop-development/
LIFE CYCLE OF A GMO: FIELD TESTING
The GMO Process
Step 6: Getting Seeds to Farmers
Fun fact:
In 2013, more than
18 million farmers
globally chose to
plant GMO seeds for
better harvests,
improved crop
quality and the
ability to use
sustainable farming
practices such as
no-till.
Farmers choose seeds that are best for their farms and
businesses. Both GM and non-GM seeds are available options
for farmers.
Source: http://croplife.org/biotech-crop-development/
LIFE CYCLE OF A GMO : SEEDS TO FARMERS
The GMO Process
Genetic
Traits
Expressed
In GMOs In
The U.S.
RAINBOW PAPAYA
Genetic Traits
• Disease Resistance
Uses
• Table Fruit
SUMMER SQUASH
Genetic Traits
• Disease Resistance
Uses
• Food
FIELD CORN
Genetic Traits
• Insect Resistance
• Herbicide Tolerance
• Drought Resistance
Uses
• Livestock and poultry feed
• Fuel Ethanol
• High-fructose corn syrup
and other sweeteners
• Corn oil
• Starch
• Cereal and other food
ingredients
• Alcohol
• Industrial uses
SOYBEAN
Genetic Traits
• Insect Resistance
• Herbicide Tolerance
Uses
• Livestock and poultry feed
• Aquaculture
• Soybean oil
• High oleic acid
• Soymilk, soy sauce, tofu,
other food uses
• Lecithin
• Pet food
• Adhesives and building
materials
• Printing ink
• Other industrial uses
COTTON
Genetic Traits
• Insect Resistance
• Herbicide Tolerance
Uses
• Fiber,
• Animal feed,
• Cottonseed oil
SWEET CORN
Genetic Traits
• Insect Resistance
Uses
• Food
ALFALFA
Genetic Traits
• Herbicide Tolerance
Uses
• Animal feed
SUGAR BEETS
Genetic Traits
• Herbicide Tolerance
Uses
• Sugar,
• Animal feed
CANOLA
Genetic Traits
• Herbicide Tolerance
Uses
• Cooking oil
• Animal feed
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
There are Currently Eight Crops Commercially
Available From GMO Seeds in the U.S.
No other type of new seed that comes to the market from other breeding methods goes
through regulatory approval, including the thousands of conventional and organic seeds
developed from mutagenesis*. Only GMOs are required to be reviewed. Even before the
new seed goes through the review process, years of testing and research take place.
*Deliberately engineered DNA mutations
After 13 YEARS and
$136 MILLION
(on average), the seed
variety is brought
to market
Review to
prove
GMOs are
safe to eat
New GMO seed
variety
Review of
GMOs that
enhance pest
control to
prove they
are safe for
the
environment
Review of
all GMOs
to prove
they are
safe to
grow
www.FoodDialogues.com
Phillips McDougall, “The Cost and time involved in the discovery, development and authorization of a new plant breeding
biotechnology derived trait.” September 2011.
AG INNOVATION
How a GM Seed Gets to Market
Produce Food that is as Safe and Nutritious as Conventional
4.4 Billion acres of farmland used for GMO
crops since 1996
35 years that GMO crops have been
researched and developed
64 countries where GM crops have been
found safe for growing or import
Sources: ISAAA.org; biofortified.org; croplife.org/PhillipsMcDougallStudy
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
Genetically Modified Crops (GMOs)
Examples:
CORN that is tolerant to
drought, insects and
disease
SOY that can be planted
without tilling, preserving
precious topsoil
COTTON that is protected
from harmful insects
PAPAYA that resists a
disease that threatened to
wipe out the crop
Source: ISAAA Brief 46-2013: Executive Summary Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2013
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
The Benefits of GMOs
Between 1996 and 2013, Crop Biotechnology was Responsible
for an Additional:
21.7M
Metric Tons
of Cotton
Lint
Source: pgeconomics.co.uk
138M
Metric Tons
of Soybeans
274M
Metric Tons
of Corn
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
Better Harvests
Economic gains of ~U.S. $133B were generated globally by
biotech crops between 1996 to 2013.
30% Due to reduced production
costs
70% Due to substantial yield
gains of 441.4M tons
Biotech cotton in developing
countries has already made a
significant contribution to the
income of >16.5 million
smallholder resource-poor farmers
in 2013.
Sources: pgeconomics.co.uk; ISAAA.org
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
Economic Benefits
The reduction in pesticides from
1996 to 2013 was estimated at
550 million kilograms—and
8.6% reduction.
In 2013 alone, biotech helped
prevent an estimated 28 billion
kg of CO2 emissions, equivalent
to removing 12.4 million cars
from the road for a year.
Without biotech, it would take an
additional 44.7 million acres to
produce the same amount of food
produced in 2014.
Sources: pgeconomics.co.uk; ISAAA.org
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
Environmental Benefits
The U.S. Food Price Index
changes would amount to
$14 – $24 billion per year
increase without biotech crops
The drop in price of food is due to
increased productivity by farmers,
which has arisen via the adoption
of new technologies.
Source: 2010 study by Graham Brookes et al.
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
Consumer Benefits
GMO Safety
GM crops are reviewed by hundreds of
independent risk assessors and scientists.
Every credible U.S. and international food
safety authority that has studied GM crops
has found that they are safe.
No health effects attributable to their use
have been found.
Since 1996 at least 60 different countries
have granted more than 3,000 commercial
use approvals on 357 different
GM traits in 27 crops.
In many countries there are multiple
regulatory authorities (up to seven in one
country) with the responsibility of assessing
a particular aspect of safety.
PGEconomics.org
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
GM Crop Safety
Is it safe to
grow?
Is it safe for humans
and animals to eat?
• Nutritional changes
Is it safe for
humans and the
environment?
• Compositional changes
Globally, >30 additional regulatory bodies also review
each product before it can be commercialized.
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
In the U.S., Three Regulatory Agencies
have Oversight for GM Crops
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
GMO Research, Review and Regulation
U.S. Food and Drug
Administration
World Health
Organization
“Food and food ingredients
derived from GE plants
must adhere to the same
safety requirements … that
apply to food and food
ingredients derived from
traditionally bred plants.
The consultation is
complete only when
FDA’s team of scientists are
satisfied with the [GE Food]
developer's safety
assessment and have
no further questions
regarding safety or other
regulatory issues.”
“GM foods currently
available on the
international market have
passed risk assessments
and are not likely to
present risks for human
health. In addition, no
effects on human health
have been shown as a
result of the consumption
of such foods by the
general population in the
countries where they have
been approved.”
May 2013
February 2002
American Medical
Association Council
on Science and
Public Health
“Bioengineered foods have
been consumed for close
to 20 years, and during
that time, no overt
consequences on human
health have been reported
and/or substantiated in the
peer-reviewed literature”
June 2012
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
Scientists and Scientific Organizations
Agree on Safety
American Council
on Science
and Health
“It’s irresponsible to assert
that GMOs pose any
dangers to consumers or
the environment since
billions of tons of crops
have been produced using
GMO technology and
harvested over many
years, and still not a single
case of adverse health or
environmental effects from
such farming practices
have been documented.”
February 2013
Anne Glover,
European
Commission Chief
Scientific Advisor
“If we look at evidence
from 15 years of growing
and consuming GMO foods
globally, then there is no
substantiated case of any
adverse impact on human
health, animal health
or environmental health,
so that’s pretty robust
evidence, and I would
be confident in saying
that there is no more
risk in eating GMO food
than eating conventionally
farmed food.”
July 2012
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
Scientists and Scientific Organizations
Agree on Safety
European
Academies Science
Advisory Council
“The production of more
food, more sustainably,
requires the development
of crops that can make
better use of limited
resources …. Sustainable
agricultural production and
food security must harness
the potential of
biotechnology in all its
facets.”
June 2013
The Royal
Society
“The results need to be
viewed in the context of
a normal diet, which for
humans and animals
comprises large amounts
of DNA. Given the very
long history of DNA
consumption from a wide
variety of sources, we
conclude that such
consumption poses no
significant risk to human
health, and that additional
ingestion of GM DNA has
no effect.”
February 2002
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
Scientists and Scientific Organizations
Agree on Safety
UNDERSTANDING GMOs
More Information is Available at
GMOAnswers.com
Understanding Pesticides
https://www.youtube.com/user/MonsantoCo/videos
AG INNOVATION
How Do Farmers Use Pesticides?
Thank you for your interest in sharing more about
agriculture today.
The enclosed presentation is designed to be
customized for your needs by incorporating your
organization’s logo and/or adding or removing
slides.
Please contact Milton Stokes at
[email protected] with questions or
further context about the slide content.
PRESENTER’S NOTE
Presenter Notes