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Classification & Taxonomy
Day 1
Classification
Used to:
1) Name organisms
2) Group organisms in logical order
**Quick Write Activity: Answer the following in your notes:**
Why do we need a standard system for naming things?
(get stamps from teacher)
Taxonomy
= scientists classify organisms and assign each organism a
universally accepted name
Carolus Linnaeus
=Father of taxonomy; He developed binomial nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature
= each species assigned a two part scientific name
Rules
1. Always written in ITALICS
2. First letter of first word capitalized (Genus)
3. Second word all lower case (species)
4. First word= genus
5. Second word=species
6. Always in Latin
Example: Homo sapien ( Humans )
Hierarchical System
Taxon= each level in system
KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamily
GenusSpecies
King Phillip Came Over For
Good Soup
Phylogeny
= study of evolutionary relationships among organism
A.K.A Cladogram
**There are 3 Domains and 6 Kingdoms**
Bacteria
•Kingdom: Eubacteria
Archae
•Kingdom: Archaebacteria
Eukarya
•Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Domain Bacteria
-Only Kingdom=Eubacteria
-Characteristics
• Unicellular
• Prokaryotic
• Thick ridged cell wall made of peptidoglycan
-Two types
• Aerobes= need oxygen
• Anaerobes= do NOT need oxygen
Domain Archae
- Only Kingdom= Archaebacteria
- Characteristics
• Unicellular
• Prokaryotic
• Live in extreme environments
Example: volcanic hot springs
• Cell walls LACK peptidoglycan
- Most are anaerobes
Prokaryotic Cells Review
1. Only bacterial cells
2. Do not have a nucleus
3. DNA is found in the cytoplasm
4. Do not have membrane bound
organelles
Classification & Taxonomy
Day 2
Domain Eukarya
- All are Eukaryotic cells
-Has 4 Kingdoms
1) Protista
2) Fungi
3) Plantae
4) Animalia
Kingdom Protista
-Eukaryotic
-Great variety
-Characteristics
• Most are single celled
• Photosynthetic or heterotrophic
Kingdom Fungi
-Eukaryotic
Characteristics:
• Heterotrophs
• Most feed on dead or decaying matter
• Most are multicellular but some are unicellular
Kingdom Plantae
-Eukaryotic
Characteristics:
• Multicellular
• Photosynthetic autotrophs
• Cells contain chloroplast
• Non-motile
• Cell walls contain cellulose
Kingdom Animalia
-Eukaryotic
-Very diverse
Characteristics:
•Multicellular heterotrophs
• Do NOT have cell walls
• Most move about during at least part of their life cycle
Eukaryotic Cells Review
-More complex
-Have nucleus
-DNA found in nucleus
-Have membrane bound organelles
-Animals, plants, fungi, and protists
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