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Unit 3 Imperialism What is Imperialism? Empire Building in the late 1800s. Eng, Fr, Ger, Neth (Russia is building empire too- but differently) New Imperialism Old Imperialism • Late 1800s • In 1800 Europe directly controlled 7% of the earth, in 1914 84%(!) British empire along represented 25% of world population, 20% world territory. • Looking for materials, markets, and strategic locations • Social Darwinism 1500s-1700s Europeans explored, and claimed territory in new world- but not so much other places. Increase contact with other civilizations, but not dominance (except Amerindians) Why do it? • Europe is small, with limited opportunities for expansion. (esp. in west). Growing population needs room. 1815-1932 60 million people leave Europe (Largest #s to US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand) • Nationalism (which supported growth of power), and industrialization (which created need for materials/markets, and made communication/transportation more efficient) made empire building possible and profitable • Build your wealth- protect your power Types of Imperialism: Multiple Types • Colonial: Most complete form of domination. Europeans take control- enforcing European rules and leadership (Viceroy) Control gov’t, econ, social system • Political: Influence (but not necessarily control) gov’t. May use military domination, or replace ruler with “puppet”. Protectorate • Economic: Control trade and commerce, but not gov’t. (though do influence to ensure control) mainly looking for trade advantage. Sphere of Influence • Socio-Cultural: often done with religious, or philanthropic means. Less coercion, just won’t help if natives don’t comply. Missionary • Strong religious revivalism @end of 19th century, esp among the middle classes • Went out to save the souls of the “heathens”practical romanticism. • Successful in some areas (Africa) less so in areas with firmly established indigenous religions (Like Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists) Forms of Imperialism Settler Colonies • Larger # of Europeans (might or might not outnumber natives- but better) Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Algeria, Kenya • Climate more like Europe- bring the family. Will lead to development of new cultural elements Tropical dependency • Small # of Europeans outnumbered by a large # of natives. Norm in Africa, Asia, and S. Pacific (which created issues with controlling nativesmade them more military based) • Climate considered “unsuitable” for women and children so families stayed at home. Social Darwinism • Survival of fittestEuropeans rule b/c they are stronger- they are supposed to “civilize” weaker races. • Success fed nationalism, and success in colonies kept attention from issues at home. White Man’s Burden • Part of the European’s superiority complex was that they spent a fair amount of time moaning about how difficult it was for them to have the “Burden” of domination. • Poem: Rudyard Kipling Industrialization and Imperialism • Exploration had sought treasure and land. Now they need raw materials (cotton, hemp, copper, rubber, ivory, diamonds, cocoa, tea, coffee) for industry and protected markets for their stuff. The good news (for them) is that improved transportationtrains made it easier to penetrate inland. Panama/Suez canals cut travel time Examples of Imperialism The British Empire: India • Mughal dynasty controlled India (but loosely, India always fragments, empire was falling apart) Europeans began trading in 1600s with Nawabs- Muslim princes. English & French main traders, Dutch trade in Ceylon British East India Company • Robert Clive: Defeated French at Battle of Madras- kicked them out of India • Joint-stock, given a monopoly by the British government. Based in Calcutta. Competed with French, then drove them out during 7 years war. “Company Men” created trade outposts- made agreements with local rulers. Had Euro military, and native Sepoys to protect trade Black Hole of Calcutta • 1765 • Prince of Calcutta angry, threw English troops in tiny cell (several died) Upset the British, got permission from the Mughal Emperor to overthrow “uncooperative” princes and rule some territory directly. Controlled Calcutta, Bengal, and Bombay Rule by East India Co • The British Raj (rule)little by little they expanded the land they controlled, either by taking over, or setting up “puppet” rulers. Ever expanding military (European and Sepoy) Missionary attempts. Econ and political imperialism brewing Anglo Indian Relations • Indians maintained rule of much territory (as long as they didn’t upset the British). British didn’t always want to rule directly- India is a hassle • Delicate balance- princes maintain power, but British have control. • Modernized, and created new jobs- but hurt India’s once flourishing trade economy Sepoy Rebellion • 1857 • East India Co issued native troops new rifles- with bullet casings that offended both Hindu and Muslim troops (cow hide, pork fat) Touched off simmering anger (India is an ancient civilization, didn’t like the way the British treated them as inferior) • 1000s of British killed- gov’t stepped in to squash rebellion, and ended by taking full control. Colonial, Tropical Dependency. Tiny British pop directly controlling millions of Indians British Imperial Rule • An English Viceroy now ruled India directlypowerful, efficient bureaucracy “Indian Civil Service” (Open to all- but exams given only in England- so all Euro). Mughal Empire disbanded, but various Hindu and Muslim princes allowed to rule as “loyal subjects” • Native promised equal protection under the law, and the right to practice their own religious and social customs (though some, like Suttee, we outlawed) Durbars • Elaborate ceremonies, and celebrations help to legitimize British rule (A big show was an important part of eastern culture) • Victoria declared “Empress of India” and Prince of Wales (Edward VII) had elaborate coronation tour 1902-3 Economic Impact • Massive investment in infrastructure esp railroads (25,000 mi of track) • Cotton, tea, silk, sugar sent in raw state to Eng to be processed. (India’s econ has been trade based for centuries- actually becomes MORE agricultural) • Growth of cities, growth of disease- Cholera worst, contaminated drinking water. Indian Nationalism • English created European style schools for children of native elite- train them to be 2nd tier rulers/bureaucrats of their own nation. But that created an unintended consequence- the English gave birth to Indian Nationalism o 1. Brought various groups together o 2. Gave them a common grievance o 3 Alienated them from their native cultures, strove to build something new they could all be a part of • Rammohun Roy- most important early nationalist Indian National Congress • 1885 A group of educated and ambitious Indians gathered- with the intent of creating a larger role for Indians in the civil service. • Eventually, the focus will turn to home rule, and then the creation of the modern Indian state (after wwi) Southeast Asia • Competition for colonies began during exploration, after allAsia was where everyone had been headed in the first place. • Now pushing into new areas British colonies Dutch colonies • Need to control trade from China – India • Burma: teak, rubber, jade, ivory • Singapore (Malaysia): A key port and naval base, as well as source for tin and rubber. • “Dutch East Indies” made up of what is today Indonesia. • Important source of rubber, sugar, coffee, tobacco and tin Russo- Japanese war • 1904 Both Russia and Japan want Manchuria (north of China) and Korea. Japan’s new ultra modern military wins- announces them as a world power Japan • Had been isolationist since 1500sCommodore Matthew Perry (US) opened trade in 1853. • Meiji restorationJapanese determined to beat Euro at its own game. Industrialized at record pace- soon needed their own colonies for raw materials French Colonies • Rather behind in colonial game- a sign of their struggles at home • Most important in Asia was French Indochina: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia China • Had also been in contact with Europe since 1500s- and tried to keep contact at a minimum. Ming dynasty had made deliberate choice NOT to modernize- and stuck to it. By 1800 that has created a problem (closed to technology etc…) • Canton System: Chinese only allow foreign ships in Canton, and will only trade for gold/silver, not goods. • 1792 Eng. sent George McCartney (McCartney Mission) to negotiate more open trade policy. Chinese demanded he kowtow before emperor’s envoys- he said he would, if they would bow to a picture of the king. England frustrated with China, don’t like being treated as 2nd class Opium Wars • So now England needs to find a product the Chinese will trade for- and they find it in India, drugs. (Opium has been used there for centuries for painkilling etc..) • Began to give it away after failure of McCartney mission, and by 1820 England has a positive balance of trade. • Emperor tried to outlaw Opium- ineffective. Blocked British from landing, and burned warehouses of opiumBritish said that was a violation of trade- and declared war • 1839, and 1856 Eng spanked China and began to force trade concessions Unequal Treaties • Treaty of Nanking 1842: Canton system dismantled. Chinese lost control of their foreign trade. • 5 ports opened- Hong Kong ceded to the British. Extraterritoriality and most favored nation status given to British. • Other Euros see this and force their way in (US, Japan, France) Taiping Rebellion • 1850 Chinese civil war brought about by losses in war and humiliation of treaties. 20 mil Chinese diedtook gov’t 14 years to put down rebellion Spheres of Influence • British hold monopoly on trade on the Yangzi River. • Russia had Manchuria (until Russo-Jap war) • Japan took Taiwan in Sino-Japanese War • By 1900 many of China’s ports had been “carved up” as special zones for various Imperial powers • US demanded “Open Door Policy” Imperialists promised not to fight, but to respect each other’s claims- and allow free trade in other areas Africa • Last area to be imperialized. “Deepest, Darkest Africa” had always been troubling for Europeans. Poor climate (for them) few navigable rivers. Euro had stayed on coast. • But Africa had TONS of raw materials- and as tech improved and needs grew- Europe moved in North Africa Egypt: British • From 1883- 1956 Egypt is ruled by British, became a model for “new imperialism” • 1st step into Africa. Ruled by Ottoman Empire (through a native Khedive) 1769-1849 led by Muhammad Ali, who wanted to modernize (capitalize on cotton) Borrowed $$ from Englandthen starts having econ problems (post civil war) 1875 England steps in to protect investment- and Suez canal Sudan • South of Egypt- and source of the Nile. Therefore British need the water- and “had” to conquer in 1898 to protect their “interests” Algeria: French • Mediterranean has been home to Barbary Pirates for 100 years. French invade N. Africa in 1830 to put down piracy by 1870 control territory. Still theirs Tunisia/Morocco • 1881 France expanded on a pretext of tribal raids from neighboring territory. • Gradually extended all the way along west coast South Africa • Became primarily a settler colony- as did Kenya, Tanzania, and Nigeria • Dutch est colony on the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 as a stopping point on the way to Asia. • After Napoleonic warsparts of Southern Africa claimed by the British as well Dutch began to move further inland (the great trek) Shaka Zulu • Native leader-1816 began attacking Euros to defend his landsuccessfully. (innovative techniques) Led British to expand their presence in southwhich brought them into conflict with other Euros Boers • Descendants of the Dutch. Had moved away from coast to Transvaal and Orange Free State- All well and good- until diamonds discovered there in 1880s Cecil Rhodes • Pushed British claims north into what he called “Rhodesia” (Zimbabwe and Zambia) by 1910 Cape, Transvaal and Orange all “South Africa • Prime Minister of British Cape Colony- moved in to claim diamonds (stated goal “Cape to Cairo” dominance of Africa) Aggressive imperialist- said British should “annex the stars”. Founded DeBeers mining Co. Boer War • 1899-1902 • British and Boers fight for control of territory. Both sides fought savagely. British created world’s first “concentration camps” for civilians to keep them from being able to fight. • Massive British force sent in to overwhelm. British not really concerned that Dutch don’t like them, but Dutch are supported by Germanswho are making British increasingly nervous Explorers and Missionaries • Romanticized- seemed “exotic” (in an age where things were practical at home) • David Livingstone- 1841, came to convert and explore along Zambezi river. Named “Victoria Falls”. Did a speaking tour – wildly popular. Set off on expedition to find the source of the Niledisappeared for months. Henry Stanley went in search of him (met at lake Tanganyika) and then on to claim land for king Leopold of Belgium in Congo. • Popularity help precipitate the “Scramble for Africa” Scramble for Africa • 1880 Europe controlled 10% of Africa, by 1914 they had everything except Liberia and Ethiopia • 1875-1901. Mad dash by Euros to claim every bit of land. Inspired by explorers and practical gains to be had- and by social Darwinism Germany • Got a late start to imperialism b/c of unification issues. Bismarck wasn’t interested at first, then realized it was one of the markers of a great power. • Claimed Togoland and Cameroon in W. Africa, German East Africa (Tanzania) and Namibia in SW Africa Berlin Conference • 1884-1885 Bismarck called a meeting of 14 major states to discuss imperialist planswanted to avoid war over disputed claims. Sat down with a map and carved it up. Show’s Germany’s increased role Italy • Last on in. Same problems with unification, and they weren’t really industrialize either (so they didn’t need the stuff so much) just trying to participate. Claimed Eritrea, part of Somalia, tried to take Libya Pacific • Settler colonies and small tropical dependencies Australia and New Zealand • 1770 Capt. James Cook claimed Australian for the British. Began as a Penal Colony (New South Wales) Sheep herding the major industry until gold discovered in the 1851 • Arrival of Europeans devastating for the natives. Aborigines continued hunter/gatherer lifestyle, but Maori of New Zealand signed treaties with British which were disavowed, and after a series of wars they ended up on “reservations” Islands • Not popular with imperialist until nearly the end- but then liked as points for naval bases/trade control. Also divided at Berlin Conference • France: Tahiti, Marquesas, New Caledonia • England: Fiji • Germany: Marshall Islands • US: Hawaii and Philippines (Sp. Amer War) Global Changes from Imperialism • Widened gap between rich and poor, created a new measure of success beyond Ind/not Ind. (Beginning of idea of 1st world and 3rd world) • Spread industrialism worldwide- though did not offer control to non-euros. • West needed to dominate the world to maintain their pace of growth Issues: Economic • Imperialists controlled resources of their subject countries. Global trade of new resources; diamonds, rubber (most important) petroleum- as well as those long established; timber, cotton, tea, coffee, cacao. • Europeans filled colonies with farms for cash crops (either native, or introduced) often at expense of staple crops for native population Labor • Encouraged people to emigrate from Europe for cheap land and econ opportunity. • Moved natives if they needed them for labor source. Ex: Indians to South Africa to build RR. (worked well to move people from dense cultures, like China/India) • 1815-1932 approx 60 million left Europeprimarily from Eng, Ireland, Italy and Germany. Most went to European dominated areas like US, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. • Immigrants generally from poor/rural areas (though not poorest- they couldn’t afford ticket) About ½ returned to Europe at some point. Jewish immigrants least likely to return (persecution) Social • Conflicts between Euro/natives fairly distantEuros tended to stay separate. Highly insular and insulated, only “natives” they knew were servants. Upper class natives seldom included in Euro world- which bred resentment (esp in India/China) • Increased opportunities for native women, and for European women- greater independence Scientific Racism • Imperialism designed to benefit imperialists- not natives. • Social Darwinism (Herbert Spencer) said there were 4 main races on the planet, each with distinct characteristics. o Black (African) naturally lazy and unintelligent o Brown (Indian/Hispanic) arrogant and dull o Yellow (Asian) smart, but sneaky o White (Euro) morally superior and intelligent • Survival of the fittest- Europeans win because nature has selected them to rule International rivalries • Between 1814-1914 there were no serious wars in Europe (the Crimean and Franco-Prussian were largest) Diplomacy and Balance of Power (Congress of Vienna and Realpolitik) had kept lid on Euro. • Fighting and beating natives made Euros more aggressive- and used to winning easily. • Bismarck main person responsible for bal of power in late 1800s- w/o him relationships between great powers will quickly become tense.