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*
Daniella Tangherlini
* It is believed that all early migration into the
Americas came from the Bering Strait into what is
now Alaska about 11,000 years ago
* The Clovis people where the land based migrants
who were believed to be the first land based
migrants in the new world
* Some migrants from Asia settled in areas around
Peru and Chile so that suggests that not all early
migrants came across the Bering Strait
* This suggest that some migrants may have come by
sea
*
* The Archaic Period is a term for the history of humans in America
during a period of 5,000 years beginning around 8000 B.C
* Early Archaic
* humans supported themselves through hunting and gathering using stone tools that
were brought with them from Asia
* Late Archaic
* Population groups began to expand their activities and develop new tools like
nets, hooks, traps and baskets. The most important crop was corn but they also
grew beans and squash.
* Farming required people to stay in one place so the first stable
settlement began to form, creating a basis for larger civilizations
* The most elaborate civilizations emerged in present day United States--in
south and central American and what is now Mexico.
* In Peru the Incas created the largest empire in the Americas (in Cuzco
with a powerful leader named Pachacuti)
*
Most local leaders allied with the Incas. The empire survived by large innovative administrations and
large paved roads.
* The Olmec people began in 1000 B.C and were the first truly complex
society in the Americas
* In 800 A.D in the Yucatan peninsula and parts of Central America the
Mayan civilization began
*
Developed a written language, a numerical system, an accurate calendar, an advanced
agricultural system and trade routes into other areas.
* The societies of the Mayas were eventually superseded by the Aztecs,
they called themselves Mexica
* In 1300 A.D the Mexica established Tenochtitlan: that became the greatest
city ever created in the Americans to that point. It had a population of
100,000 by 1500, a connected water supply by aqueducts, large buildings,
schools, a military, a medical system and a slave workforce. They dominated
most of central Mexico through a system of tribute (tax paid in crops or
animals) enforced by military power.
*
* Mexica developed a religion based on belief of human sacrifice.
They believed the gods would only be satisfied by being fed the
living hears of humans. So they sacrificed humans (largely
prisoners)
* Disease and disunity made it difficult for them to survive the
European invasion
* The people in the north did not develop empires as large or
advanced as the Incas, Mayas, of Aztecs
* They did build complex civilizations of great variety.
* The Eskimos fished and hunted seals in largely frozen land
* The big game hunters of the forests led nomadic lives chasing moose and caribou
* The tribes of the pacific northwest fished salmon and created permanent
settlements along the coast and often fought with other tribes for access to
natural resources.
* The tribes in the west became wealthy by developing successful communities
based on fishing, hunting, and gathering.
* In the southwest they became more elaborate and developed water systems to
allow farming on dry land.
* The eastern third of what is now the U.S was much inhabited by
the woodland Indians that has the greatest food resources of any
region of the continent.
*
* Cohokia emerged as a result of trade which had a population of
about 10,000 and contained a great complex of large earthen
mounds
* The agricultural society of the northwest was more nomadic
because they used harmful farming techniques and so they were
forced to migrate often.
* Many of the tribes living east of the Mississippi river were linked
by common linguistic roots.
* The largest was the Algonquian which dominated the Atlantic
seaboard from Canada to Virginia. Another important one was
Iroquoian centered in upstate New York, it included the Seneca,
Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk.
* Europeans were unaware of the existence of the americas before
the 15th century.
* A few early wanderers-leif eriksson, and eleventh century Norse
Seaman- had glimpsed the new world
*
* Europe in the middle ages was not adventurous
* The roman catholic church exercised a measure of spiritual
authority over most of the continent and the holy roman empire
provided a nominal political center
* Conditions changed in the late 15th century and interest in over
seas exploration had grown.
* Two things inspired Europeans to venture off to new lands.
* A significant opulation growth in the 15th century
* The plauge (cause a rise in land values, a reawakening of commerce, and
increase in proseperity)
* When Marco polo returned from Asia with spices, fabrics, and
dyes Europeans began wanting to trade with the east.
* The first to to finance daring expeditions. They were the largest
preeminent maritime power in the 15th century, because of prince
henry the navigator.
*
Henry wanted to explore the west coast of Africa. He dreamed of establishing a
Christian empire their to aid his countries wars against the moors of northern Africa.
*
* Bartholomeu Dias rounded the southern tip of of Africa (1486)
* Vasco De Gama proceeded all he way around the tip to Asia (1498)
* Christopher Columbus did not win support for his plan to go across
the world in Portugal so he went to Spain and they accepted.
(1492)
* Vasco de Balboa became the first to gaze westward upon the great
ocean that separated America from china and the indies. (1513)
* Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese found the Magellan strait and
struggled through the stormy narrows and into the ocean so by
contrast he named it the pacific)
*
HCA
FPI
Hernando Cortez conquered the Aztecs
Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca
* Hernando de Soto in a search for gold led expeditions through florida and became
the first white man to cross the Mississippi river
* Francisco Coronado traveled north from mexico into new mexico and helped open
the south west of what is now the U.S
* The Spanish military forces aided by diseases establish their dominion
over lands once ruled by natives.
* In 1570 the new Spanish laws (ordinances of discovery) banned most
brutal military conquests. From that point on the Spanish expanded their
presence in America through colonization.
* The first Spaniards that arrived in the new world only cared about
$$$$$$$$$ and they succeeded (mines 10x average amount of gold)
* The Spanish made settlements that altered the environment unlike the
conquistadores
* The catholic church was an important force for colonization; Ferdinand
and Isabella bowed to the wishes of the church and required Catholicism
* The Spanish had catholic missions that aimed at converting the Indians to
Catholicism
* Presidios (military bases)protected the Europeans on the missions
* The missionary impulse became on the the main reasons for Europeans
coming to America
* The catholic church extended through central America, Mexico, and into
the southwest of the U.S
*
* The Spanish fort (1565) established at Fort Augustine, Florida
became the first permanent settlement in what is now the United
States. It was a military outpost, an administrative center for
Franciscan missionaries, and a headquarters for unsuccessful
campaigns against North American natives.
* In 1598 Don Juan De Onate claimed lands of the pueblo Indians for
Spain. The Spanish established a colony in New Mexico. He
distributed Encomiendas (licenses to extract labor and tribute
form the natives) to the natives
* The Spanish founded Santa Fe in 1609
* Onate’s harsh treatment of the natives threatened the stability of
the new colony and got him removed from governor in 1606
* In 1680 the colony was nearly destroyed in the pueblo revolt of
1680. The Spanish wanted to suppress the native religious
practices. So the Apache tribes raided the colony. Pope (Indian
leader) led and uprising that killed hundreds of Europeans,
captured Santa Fe, and drove the Spanish from the region.
*
* The Spanish began intensifying their efforts to convert the
Indians by baptizing them at birth and enforcing catholic rituals.
* They permitted the pueblos to own land, lessened the
encomienda system, and tolerated Indian rituals.
* The efforts were partially successful and intermarriages began
happening between Indians and Europeans.
* In the 16th century the Spanish empire became the largest in the
history of the world.
* It was very different from the one the the English would establish
in North America
* Colonist had few opportunities to establish political institutions
independent of Spain.
* The Spanish were more successful at getting gold than the English
* The Gov. established regulations that required all trade to go
through specific Spanish ports.
*
* Europeans learned of the gold in America because of the native
Americans
* European diseases were imported to the natives; millions died
* On Hispaniola- where the Dominican republic and Haiti are today
and where Columbus landed went from 1 million native to 500
* The natives dying off was also partly due to the conquistadores
subjugation and extermination.
* The Europeans learned many things from the natives like farming
techniques new crops like corn, squash, pumpkin, beans, sweet
potatoes, tomatoes and peppers.
* Many natives began speaking Portuguese and Spanish
* Mestizos were children who had Indian and European parents
* In some places Indians were sold into slavery
*
* Most of the blacks that were brought forcibly to America came
from a large desert region in west Africa known as Guinea.
* ½ of all arrivals to the new world were African Americans
* Since Guinea traded so much with the Mediterranean there was a
lot of conversions to Islam
* After the collapse of the kingdom aroun 1100 A.D. the even larger
empire of Mali emerged and survivied into the 15th century
* Its city (timbuktu) became the trading center and a seat of
education.
* Africans farther south were more isolated from europe and very
politically fragmented.
*
* African societies & native American societies tend to be
matrilineal (heredity was traced through the mother)
* Women played a dominant role, in trade; in many areas they
were principal farmers
* African societies had a high degree of sexual equality.
Priests and
nobles
African social ranks
Middle group of
farmers,traders,
and others
Slaves
(criminals and debtors)
* African slavery began long before the European migration the the
new world
* As early as the 8th century west Africans west Africans began
selling slaves to traders from the Mediterranean
* In the 16th century the market for slaves grew dramatically as a
result of rising European demand for sugarcane
* Sugar was a labor intensive crop
* By the 17th century the Dutch had most of the control of the slave
market. In the 18th century the English dominated it.
* By 1700 slavery had begun to spread well beyond the Caribbean and
south America and into the English colonies to the north.
* England's first contact with the new world came 5 years after
Spain.
* In 1497 John Cabot sailed to the northeastern coast of north
America on an expedition sponsored by king Henry the 7th
* Other English navigators continued Cabot's unsuccessful search for
a northwest passage of north America through the new world to
the orient.
*
* The English were attracted to the new world because of its newness
* The government passed various laws deigned to relieve the worthy poor
and compel the able-bodied to work. They failed
* England removed land from cultivation and in doing so limited England's
ability to feed its rising population
* Most explorers did business as individuals but some joined forces and
formed chartered companies. Each on a basis of a charter acquired by
the monarch (gave the companies a monopoly in the region)
* Mercantilism was the idea that the goal of economic activity should be
to increase the nations total wealth. One nation could grow rich at the
expense of another. (England should invest a little in the colonies but
receive a lot)
* Richard Hakluyt argued that colonies would not only create new markets
for English goods but also help alleviate poverty and unemployment by
shipping off the surplus population
*
* The protestant movement began in Germany in 1517 when Martin
Luther openly challenged some of the basic practices and beliefs
of the roman catholic church. He believed salvation could be
reached through good works and loyalty (payments) to the church
itself. He denied that god communicated to the world through
the pope and clergy.
* He achieved a wide following
* He didn't’t want to revolt against the church he just wanted to
reform it. The pope got angry and removed him from the catholic
church so Luther lead his followers out of the church
sux 2 b
u pope
*
* John Calvin was the most influential reformer (after Luther) he
further rejected the catholic church’s belief that you could pay to
be saved. He started the belief of predestination (god elected
some to be saved and others to be damned). It could not be
changed but you could strive to find out if you were saved or
damned.
* The English reformation started because king Henry the 8th
was
refused a divorce form his wife who failed to give him a son so he
broke England's ties with the catholic church and established
himself as the head of the Christian faith in his country.
* After his death his daughter (bloody) Mary came to the throne and
went back to Catholicism and prosecuted those who refused.
* Her half sister Elizabeth came to the throne and broke the ties
with the catholic church once again.
* The most ardent protestants became puritans because they
wanted to purify the church (wanted to reduce the power of
corrupt bishops)
* Some took radical positions and became separatists
* In the 1560s the English began to move through Ireland,
capturing territory, and attempting to subdue the natives.
* They developed many assumptions that would later guide the
English colonists in America
* Assumptions:
* The native population of Ireland was wild, vicious, savage beasts
* Natives could not be tamed
* The English settlements in distant lands must retain separation from
the natives.
* Henry Gilbert suppressed native rebellion in Ireland.
* Plantations (transplantation of English society in foreign
lands)where established in Ireland.
* The wanted to preserve “pure” English culture
*
* English settlers in North American encountered other Europeans as
well as natives.
* French founded its first settlement at Quebec in 1608 less then a
year after Jamestown was founded.
* French population grew very slow
* French Jesuit missionaries were the first to penetrate Indian
societies. The coureurs de bois were adventurous fur traders and
trappers who moved into the wilderness. They started working
with the Indian fur traders.
* Seigneuries were agricultural estates
* In 1609 Samuel de Champlain led and attack on a band of Mohawks
* Henry Hudson sailed up the Hudson river in New York and he
believed that he found the water route to the pacific but he was
wrong.
*
* The first enduring English settlement in North America was
Jamestown in Virginia in 1607
* Virginia named after the “virgin” queen
* The English developed a sense of nationalism and wanted to
expand England.
* In the 1570s sir Francis Drake staged raids on Spanish merchant
ships and built confidence that the English could challenge
Spanish sea power.
* Spain tried invading England in 1588 in an attempt to end the
challenged of the English.
* England’s fleet dispersed the Spanish armada and the English felt
more comfortable colonizing in America
*
* Sir Humphrey Gilbert obtained permission form the queen to
explore the Americas
* Gilbert led and expedition to newfoundland in 1583 and took
possession of it in the queens name. He then proceeded
southward but was lost at sea.
* Raleigh didn’t care about Gilberts death and secured a similar
grant to explore the Americas. He returned from the north
American coast with 2 Indians.
* They were particularly enthusiastic about an island the natives
called Roanoke so he asked permission to name the entire land
“Virginia”
* In 1585 Raleigh and Grenville went to Roanoke to establish a
colony. They remained long enough to antagonize the natives by
punishing an Indian village for minor theft.
* Sir Francis Drake arrived with supplies and the colonists boarded
his ship and left.
* In 1587 Raleigh tried again and sent an expedition carrying 91 men
and 17 women and 9 children and tried to take up where the first
group had left off.
*
* John white (commander of the expedition) went back to England
in search of supplies and settlers. He returned after 3 years and
found the island utterly deserted with no clue as to the settlers
fate other than the the inscription of “croatoan” carved on a post
* This marked the end of Raleigh’s involvement in the English
colonization. He was accused of plotting against the king and
imprisoned.
* In 1606 James 1st issued a new charter that divided American
between 2 groups
* The London group got the south
* The Plymouth merchants got the north