Survey

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Survey

Document related concepts

Transcript

Chapter 4 Section 1 4.1 Solving Systems of Linear Equations by Graphing Objectives 1 Decide whether a given ordered pair is a solution of a system. 2 Solve linear systems by graphing. 3 Solve special systems by graphing. 4 Identify special systems without graphing. Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Solving Systems of Linear Equations by Graphing A system of linear equations, often called a linear system, consists of two or more linear equations with the same variables. Examples of systems include 2x 3y 4 3x y 5 x 3y 4 y 4 2x x y 1 y 3. Linear systems In the system on the right, think of y = 3 as an equation in two variables by writing it as 0x + y = 3. Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4.1-3 Objective 1 Decide whether a given ordered pair is a solution of a system. Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4.1-4 Decide whether a given ordered pair is a solution of a system. A solution of a system of a linear equations is an ordered pair that makes both equations true at the same time. A solution is said to satisfy the equation. Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4.1-5 EXAMPLE 1 Determining Whether an Ordered Pair is a Solution Decide whether the ordered pair (4,−1) is a solution of each system. 5 x 6 y 14 2x 5 y 3 x y 3 x y 3 5 4 6 1 14 4 1 3 Solution: 2 4 5 1 3 20 6 14 85 3 14 14 3 3 Yes Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 1 3 4 1 3 4 1 3 3 3 3 3 No Slide 4.1-6 Objective 2 Solve linear systems by graphing. Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4.1-7 Solve linear systems by graphing. The set of all ordered pairs that are solutions of a system is its solution set. One way to find the solution set of a system of two linear equations is to graph both equations on the same axes. The graph of each line shows points whose coordinates satisfy the equation of that line. Any intersection point would be on both lines and would therefore be a solution of both equations. Thus, the coordinates of any point at which the lines intersect give a solution of the system. Because the two different straight lines can intersect at no more then one point, there can never be more than one solution set for such a system. Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4.1-8 Solve linear systems by graphing. (cont’d) Solving a Linear System by Graphing Step 1: Graph each equation of the system on the same coordinate axes. Step 2: Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the graphs if possible. This is the solution of the system. Step 3: Check the solution in both of the original equations. Then write the solution set. A difficulty with the graphing method is that it may not be possible to determine from the graph the exact coordinates of the point that represents the solution, particularly if those coordinates are not integers. The graphing method does, however, show geometrically how solutions are found and is useful when approximate answer will do. Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4.1-9 EXAMPLE 2 Solving a System by Graphing Solve the system by graphing. 5x 3 y 9 x 2y 7 Solution: {(3,2)} Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4.1-10 Objective 3 Solve special systems by graphing. Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4.1-11 Solve special systems by graphing. Sometimes the graphs of the two equations in a system either do not intersect at all or are the same line. When a system has an infinite number of solutions, either equation of the system could be used to write the solution set. It’s best to use the equation (in standard form) with coefficients that are integers having no common factor (except 1). Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4.1-12 EXAMPLE 3 Solving Special Systems by Graphing Solve each system by graphing 3x y 4 6 x 2 y 12 Solution: Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2x 5 y 8 4 x 10 y 16 x, y 2 x 5 y 8 Slide 4.1-13 Solve special systems by graphing. (cont’d) Three Cases for Solutions of Systems 1. The graphs intersect at exactly one point, which gives the (single) ordered pair solution of the system. The system is consistent and the equations are independent. See below left. 2. The graphs are parallel lines, so there is no solution and the solution set is Ø. The system is inconsistent and the equations are independent. See below middle. 3. The graphs are the same line. There is an infinite number of solutions, and the solution set is written in set-builder notation as {(x,y)|_________}, where one of the equations is written after the | symbol. The system is consistent and equations are dependent. See below right. Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4.1-14 Objective 4 Identify special systems without graphing. Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4.1-15 Identify special systems without graphing. Example 3 showed that the graphs of an inconsistent system are parallel lines and the graphs of a system of dependent equations are the same line. We can recognize these special kinds of systems without graphing by using slopes. Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4.1-16 EXAMPLE 4 Identifying the Three Cases by Using Slopes Describe each system without graphing. State the number of solutions. 2x 3y 5 3y 2x 7 1 2 y x 3 3 1 2 y x 3 3 Solution: The equations represent parallel lines. The system has no solution. x 3y 2 2 x 6 y 4 2 y x 3 2 y x 3 6x y 3 2 x y 11 5 3 7 3 The equations represent the same line. The system has an infinite number of solutions. Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. y 6 x 3 y 2 x 11 The equations represent lines that are neither parallel nor the same line. The system has exactly one solution. Slide 4.1-17