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Roth 10e NCLEX
Chapter 4
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The nurse is setting up intravenous dextrose for a client. The family asks what dextrose is. Which of
the following statements would be appropriate for the nurse to make in response?
a. Dextrose is a type of sugar that is also
c. Dextrose is a type of sugar that is also
called glucose.
called galactose
b. Dextrose is a type of sugar that is also
d. Dextrose is the same as the sugar found in
called levulose
milk.
ANS: A
The sugar glucose is also called dextrose. Lactose is the disaccharide found in milk. Levulose is found
in many fruits and honey. Galactose is a product of the digestion of milk and is not found naturally.
PTS: 1
REF: Classification
2. While the nurse is teaching a client to read a food label, the client asks why some ingredient labels use
the term “enriched” and some use the term “fortified.” Which of the following responses is
appropriate?
a. “Enriched” and “fortified” mean the same c. “Fortified” means that some nutrients that
thing.
were lost in processing of the grain have
been added back.
b. “Enriched” means that some nutrients that d. “Fortified” means that additional sugars
were lost in processing of the grain have
were added during processing of the grain.
been added back.
ANS: B
During processing of cereal grain, some nutrients are lost. To compensate, food producers in the
United States commonly add back thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and iron to the final product. The
product is then termed “enriched.” When a nutrient that never was part of the grain is added, then the
product is said to be “fortified.”
PTS: 1
REF: Food Sources
3. The nurse is teaching a client whose diet should include more complex carbohydrates and fewer
simple sugars. Which of these foods could the nurse say is a good source of complex carbohydrates?
a. honey
c. soft drinks
b. whole wheat bread
d. table sugar
ANS: B
Berries, honey, and soft drinks all contain mostly simple sugars. Whole wheat bread contains starch, a
complex carbohydrate.
PTS: 1
REF: Classification
4. A client asks the nurse how much fiber an adult should consume each day. Which of the following
responses would the nurse say is the amount of fiber needed each day for an adult?
a. 11 grams/day
c. 20-35 grams/day
b. 15-20 grams/day
d. there is no recommended amount per day
ANS: C
The recommendation for adults for optimal fiber intake is 20-35 grams/day. The usual United States
diet is thought to contain approximately 11 grams of dietary fiber/day/
PTS: 1
REF: The Fibers
5. The client tells the nurse that consuming 2% milk results in bloating, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea.
The nurse tells the client that these effects may be due to which of the following?
a. inability of the body to digest lactose
c. too much carbohydrate in the milk
b. inability of the body to breakdown milk
d. not enough fat in the milk
fat
ANS: A
The symptoms described are those of lactose intolerance. Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Adults
who are unable to digest lactose suffer from bloating, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea after drinking
milk or consuming milk-based foods.
PTS: 1
REF: Disaccharides
6. A client is suffering from constipation. The nurse asks about the client’s diet and learns the diet is low
in fiber containing foods. Which of the following foods could the nurse say are very good sources of
fiber?
a. orange juice
c. milk
b. enriched white bread
d. whole grain cereals
ANS: D
Whole grain cereals are a very good source of water insoluble fiber. Processed grains such as enriched
white bread are not good sources of fiber because most of the fiber is removed in processing. The same
is true of orange juice. Extracting the juice leaves most of the fiber behind in the waste. Fiber is found
only in plant foods, so milk does not contain fiber.
PTS: 1
REF: The Fibers
MULTIPLE RESPONSE
1. During the initial assessment the nurse learns that the client does not consume carbohydrate containing
foods. The nurse knows that these foods are essential to a balanced diet. Which of the following
statements could the nurse make about the functions of carbohydrates? Select all that apply.
a. Adequate carbohydrate in the diet is
d. Carbohydrates provide the primary source
necessary to ensure an adequate supply of
of energy in the human diet.
protein for building and repairing body
tissues.
b. Adequate consumption of carbohydrate
e. Carbohydrates should be limited to 25
ensures production of ketones in the body.
grams/day.
c. Carbohydrates are needed for normal fat f. The body is not able to store carbohydrate.
metabolism.
ANS: A, C, D
Providing energy is the major function of carbohydrates and we need a minimum of 50-100
grams/day. The body stores carbohydrate approximately a half a day’s supply of carbohydrate to
maintain a consistent supply of energy. Carbohydrates are needed for normal fat metabolism which
protects against production of ketones and spares proteins for their primary function of building and
repairing body tissues.
PTS: 1
REF: Functions
2. Cereal grains and their products are dietary staples in nearly every part of the world. The school nurse
is preparing a handout for the students that lists some cereal grains and products made with cereal
grains. Which of the following would the nurse include on the handout? Select all that apply.
a. breakfast cereals
d. oats
b. rice
e. soy flour
c. rye
f. wheat
ANS: A, B, C, D, F
Wheat, Rye, Oats, and Rice are all cereal grains. Breakfast cereals are products of cereal grains. Soy
flour is made from soy beans, a legume.
PTS: 1
REF: Food Sources
3. The nurse is teaching a client who has diabetes about foods that contain starch. The client asks “what
is starch?” Which of the following statements could the nurse make about starch?
a. Starch is a polysaccharide.
d. Starch is found abundantly in both plant
and animal foods.
b. Starch is a simple sugar.
e. Starch is the storage form of glucose in
plants.
c. Starch contains 7 calories/gram.
f. Vegetables contain less starch than grains.
ANS: A, E, F
Starch is a polysaccharide. Polysaccharides are commonly called complex carbohydrates because they
are compounds of many monosaccharides (simple sugars). Starch is found in plants, but not in food
derived from animals. Starch is the storage form of glucose in plants. Since starch is a carbohydrate, a
gram of starch contains 4 calories.
PTS: 1
REF: Polysaccharides
NUMERIC RESPONSE
1. The nurse is explaining to a client that soft drinks contain significant amounts of simple sugars and
these sugars provide energy, and few other nutrients. As an example, the nurse tells the client that a
soft drink that contains 54 grams of carbohydrate derives how many calories from simple sugars?
ANS:
216
Rationale: Each gram of carbohydrate provides 4 calories. Simple sugars, such as those found in soft
drinks, provide calories but few other nutrients.
PTS: 1
REF: Functions, Food Sources; Classification