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GEOLOGICAL
TIME SCALE
Textbook pages 207-209, 212
GEOLOGY
The study of the nonliving
parts of the Earth such as
rocks, soil, and land features
GEOLOGIST study Geology
JAMES HUTTON
“FATHER OF MODERN GEOLOGY”
Figured out sedimentary rock gets
compacted and compressed over time
PRINCIPLE OF UNIFORMITARIANISM=
Changes in the Earth’s surface
happened slowly.
Example: gradual shifting across
different continental land forms
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lMfPSdrrjZI
RELATIVE TIME MEASUREMENTS
Measurements that give you the age of rock and soil layers by
comparing them to layers above and below
PRINCIPLE OF
SUPERPOSITION
RELATIVE DATING
Dates an unknown sample
to a certain time period
when compared to samples
of a known time period
Top layers are youngest
Bottom layers are oldest
Strata are laid down in succession
(layers are piled on top of each
other over time)
ABSOLUTE DATING
Process of determining an
approximate age of rocks by
using radiometric methods
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=phZeE7Att_s
Two Kinds of Ages
Relative - Know Order of Events But Not Dates
• Civil War Happened Before W.W.II
• Bedrock in Wisconsin Formed Before The Glaciers
Came
Absolute - Know Dates
• Civil War 1861-1865
• World War II 1939-1945
• Glaciers Left Wisconsin About 11,000 Years Ago
GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE
*The history of the Earth is
measured in Geological Time
*It is organized according to
major events
*The largest unit of time is EON
EON
ERA
PERIOD
EPOCH
IMPORTANT STAGES IN EARTH’S HISTORY
*4.6 BILLION YEARS AGO (HADEAN EON)
*3.5 BILLION YEARS AGO (ARCHEON EON/PRECAMBRIAN ERA)
*2.5 BILLION YEARS AGO(PROTEROZOIC EON/PRECAMBRIAN ERA)
*1.5 BILLION YEARS AGO(PROTEROZOIC EON/PRECAMBRIAN ERA)
*550 MILLION YEARS AGO(PROTEROZOIC EON/
PALEOZOIC ERA/CAMBRIAN PERIOD)
*450 MILLION YEARS AGO (PHANEROZOIC EON/PALEOZOIC ERA/
=
=
=
=
ORIGIN OF EARTH- NO LIFE
FIRST PROKARYOTIC CELL- LIFE
ATMOSPHERIC OXYGEN EXISTS
FIRST EUKARYOTIC CELL
= PRIMITIVE ALGAE/MARINE INVERTEBRATES
= FIRST MARINE VERTEBRATES (FISH)
ORDOVICIAN PERIOD)
*400 MILLION YEARS AGO (PHANEROZOIC EON/
= FIRST LAND INVERTEBRATES & PLANTS
*200 MILLION YEARS AGO (MESOZOIC ERA/TRIASSIC PERIOD)
= FRIST BIRDS/ROCKY MOUNTAINS FORM
*150 MILLION YEARS AGO (MESOZOIC ERA/JURASSIC PERIOD)
= AGE OF DINOSAURS
*65 MILLION YEARS AGO(CENOZOIC ERA/TERTIARY PALEOGENE PERIOD)=EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS
PALEOZOIC ERA/SILURIAN PERIOD)
PALEOCENE EPOCH)
1.8 MILLION YEARS AGO(CENOZOIC ERA/QUATERNARY PERIOD)
PLEISTOCENE EPOCH)
=FIRST MAN/MAMMALS/INSECTS/FLOWERS
Geologic Time Scale Music Video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7PQURsc2SYs