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Programming in Java 6 with Swing and Servlets Part 1
Exercises: Networking Applications
The easiest way to use networking inside an applet is to tell the browser running the
applet to load a new page. Part One of this exercise creates links to new Web pages using
the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) class. Different versions of the Java Virtual
Machine may support different sets of URL protocols, but there is usually support for the
http://, ftp:// and file:// protocols, and in Java 1.4l, secure HTTP is supported with the
https:// protocol. Part One of this exercise will implement the client part of a
client/server application.
Part Two of this exercise will use a socket to communicate between a client and a server.
The client will use the Socket class to connect with the server, and will access data
from the server using the same methods and classes from the java.io package that
were used to access data from a file. The server will use both the Socket class and the
ServerSocket class to communicate with clients. The ServerSocket class allows
the server to recognize and accept valid clients. Both the client and server will be
implemented in this part of the exercise.
Part One: Creating Links in Applets
The URL class of the java.net package provides methods that an applet running on a
remote system browser can call to link to Web pages existing on another server. Recall
that the URL class represents a Uniform Resource Locator. One way to create a new
URL object is directly from a URL string. The string should include the protocol,
hostname, optional port name, and filename.
URL myurl = new URL(“http://www.anywhere.com/”);
If a program uses this type of constructor (creating a URL from a string), it must surround
the constructor with a try/catch block in case a MalformedURLException occurs.
After obtaining the URL, the applet only needs to pass it to the browser, by executing this
command:
getAppletContext().showDocument(myurl);
The browser that contains the new URL will then load and display the document at that
URL.
1. Create a new project directory: c:\labs\ModuleNine.
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 2
2. Use you text editor to create a new Java application in the file BrowseURL.java that
extends a Swing JApplet.
3. Change the layout of the applet to FlowLayout. Add a JList component to the
Applet’s content pane. Set the selectionMode property of the JList to
Single.
4. Add an inner class to describe the links that will be added to the JList component.
Each object created from the class will consist of a String describing the link and
a URL to access the link. Insert the following code inside the BrowseURL class:
class LinkStore
{
private String title;
private URL url;
LinkStore(String title, URL url)
{
this.title = title;
this.url = url;
}
public String getTitle()
{
return title;
}
public URL getURL()
{
return url;
}
public String toString()
{
return title;
}
}
5. Add the following class variables:
private LinkStore[] myLinks = new LinkStore[7];
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 3
6. Import the following packages:
import
import
import
import
import
javax.swing.event.*;
javax.swing.*;
java.awt.*;
java.net.*;
java.applet.AppletContext;
7. Create the applet’s user interface in the getContentPanel() method. Add a
ListSelectionListener to the JList. This listener will get the object
selected from the JList, access the URL part of the object, and display it in the
browser. Also add the code to create LinkStore objects and add them to the
JList.
private JPanel getMainPanel()
{
JPanel panel = new JPanel( new FlowLayout() );
panel.setBackground(Color.white);
JList myJList = new JList();
myJList.setSelectionMode(
javax.swing.ListSelectionModel.SINGLE_SELECTION);
myJList.addListSelectionListener(
new ListSelectionListener()
{
public void valueChanged(ListSelectionEvent e)
{
JList list = (JList) e.getSource();
LinkStore ls = (LinkStore)
list.getSelectedValue();
getAppletContext().showDocument(ls.url);
}
});
myJList.setListData(myLinks);
panel.add( myJList );
return panel;
}
8. Create an array of LinkStore objects and store some URLs and a description in each
object. Do this in the constructor. (You can create a list with fewer links if you wish,
but remember to change the size of the LinkObject array to reflect the actual list size.)
public BrowseURL()
{
super();
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 4
try
{
// create an array of LinkStore objects.
URL url = new URL("http://www.google.com");
myLinks[0] = new LinkStore("Google", url );
url = new URL("http://java.sun.com");
myLinks[1] = new LinkStore("Sun's Java Site", url );
url = new URL("http://codeguru.earthweb.com/java");
myLinks[2] = new LinkStore("Java Programmer's Sourcebook", url );
url = new URL("http://www.afu.com/javafaq.html");
myLinks[3] = new LinkStore("Java Programmer' FAQ", url );
url = new URL("http://java.sun.com/products/jfc/tsc/index.html");
myLinks[4] = new LinkStore("The Swing Connection", url );
url = new URL("http://java.sun.com/products/jlf/at/book/");
myLinks[5] = new LinkStore("Java Look and Feed Design Guidelines", url );
url = new URL("http://www.javaworld.com/columns/jw-tips-index.shtml");
myLinks[6] = new LinkStore("Java Tips Index", url );
} catch (MalformedURLException e)
{
JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(this,
e.getMessage(), "Malformed URL",
JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE);
}
setContentPane( getMainPanel() );
}
9. Save the files and compile the application. Once again we need an HTML page in
which to embed the new applet. Create an html webpage, called
c:\labs\ModuleNine\BrowseURL.html and place the following code in it:
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>BrowseURL</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<h2>URL Library</h2>
<APPLET code="BrowseURL.class" width="400" height="250"></APPLET>
</BODY>
</HTML>
10. Display the page in a web browser. Click one of the links in the list. The browser
should display the new web page. Use the back button to return to the applet and
click another link. The first image shown below is the initial display of the applet,
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 5
and the second image is the display of Sun’s Java web page. This page was displayed
when the first item in the list (Sun Java Site) was selected.
Click on one of the links in the JList and you will be instructing the browser to move the
current page to a new URL location.
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 6
Part Two: Creating a Sockets Client/Server
Clients and servers both use a Socket to communicate; however, a server must perform
some additional tasks. A client establishes a single connection to a specific server, but
the server must be able to recognize and accept connection requests from many clients.
The server uses the ServerSocket class for this task. This networking exercise will
show how to create a server that can handle multiple clients simultaneously by creating a
separate Thread for each client connecting to it. The client will connect to a server by
specifying both a specific internet address (127.0.0.1, or localhost, in this exercise) and a
port number. A successful connection returns a Socket.
Create the Server
The server created in this exercise will perform the following steps:

Create a ServerSocket object.

Listen for a client to attempt a connection.
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 7

Start a new Thread to handle the client Socket, allowing the server to
listen for another client. The Thread will

Get the OutputStream and InputStream, enabling the server to
communicate with the client in the Thread

Process the client requests by communicating via these streams in the
Thread

Close the connection when the client process is finished in the Thread
1. Create a new directory c:\labs\ModuleNineServer.
2. Create a new Java application in the file Server.java. Extend a Swing JFrame and
create a main() method. Place the following code into main().
Server myServer = new Server();
myServer.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter()
{
public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e)
{
System.exit( 0 );
}
});
myServer.setVisible(true);
myServer.process();
3. Add an instance variable for the text area where the messages will be displayed with
20 rows and 40 columns. Add a variable to specify the port number to 5001 and one
to set the number of requests in the backlog queue to 100.
JTextArea clientInfo = new JTextArea(20, 40)
public static final int PORT = 5001;
public static final int NQUEUE = 100;
4. Add a JTextArea to the Center part of the frame’s BorderLayout. Set the
following properties of the JTextArea:
 name = clientInfo
 rows = 20
 columns = 40
Place the code to do this in the constructor as follows:
public Server()
{
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 8
super("Socket Server");
getContentPane().add( new JScrollPane(clientInfo);
setSize( 400,300 );
}
5. Add the following import statements before the class definition:
import
import
import
import
import
java.io.*;
java.net.*;
java.awt.*;
java.awt.event.*;
javax.swing.*;
6. Add an inner class that will be a Thread to handle each client that requests a
connection to the server. Insert the following code just before the closing brace for
the Server class:
// Thread class to handle single client connection
class ClientThread extends Thread
{
Socket client;
ObjectOutputStream output;
ObjectInputStream input;
ClientThread(Socket client)
{
this.client = client;
}
public void run()
{
try
{
// Get input and output streams.
output = new ObjectOutputStream(
client.getOutputStream() );
output.flush();
input = new ObjectInputStream(client.getInputStream() );
clientInfo.append( "\nCreated I/O streams\n" );
// Process connection.
String message = "Connection successful";
output.writeObject(message);
output.flush();
do
{
try
{
message = (String) input.readObject();
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 9
sendData(message);
clientInfo.append("\nReceived from Client: " +
message + "\n");
clientInfo.setCaretPosition(
clientInfo.getText().length());
}
catch (ClassNotFoundException cnfex)
{
clientInfo.append("\nUnknown object type
received\n");
}
} while (!message.toUpperCase().equals("TERMINATE"));
// Close connection.
clientInfo.append("\nReceived TERMINATE: Closing
connection.\n");
output.close();
input.close();
client.close();
}
catch(Exception e)
{
System.err.println(e.getMessage());
}
}
private void sendData(String s)
{
try
{
output.writeObject(s);
output.flush();
clientInfo.append("\nSent to Client: " + s + "\n");
}
catch ( IOException cnfex )
{
clientInfo.append("\nError writing object");
}
}
}
7. The above class will allow the server to communicate with multiple clients
simultaneously. The run() method of the Thread establishes two streams: an
output stream for sending messages to the client and an input stream for
receiving messages from the client. A message is appended to the JTextArea
field informing the user that the I/O streams were established. A message is then sent
informing the client that the connection is successful. The thread enters a while
loop that waits for the client to send input to the server. The server continues to read
messages until it receives a message of the form “TERMINATE.” When the
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 10
terminate message is received, the server closes the input and output streams
and the Socket connection.
All clients and servers must use a protocol in order to communicate. This exercise
uses a very simple one. Each message sent from the client is a text string. The server
simply echoes the client’s message back to the client. The only special command the
server recognizes is the terminate request.
Communication between the client and the server does not assume that either text or a
stream of bytes will be sent to the input and output streams. Primitive data or generic
objects might be sent, as well. To handle all possibilities,
ObjectOutputStream and ObjectInputStream classes are used.
Add the following method to the Server class. Make sure that you do not put it in the
inner ClientThread class!
public void process()
{
ServerSocket server;
Socket client;
int counter = 1;
try
{
// Create a ServerSocket.
server = new ServerSocket(PORT, NCLIENTS);
clientInfo.setText( "\nCreated ServerSocket on Port: "
+ PORT + "for max of "
+ NCLIENTS + " connections\n");
while ( true )
{
// Wait for a connection.
clientInfo.setText("\nWaiting for connection\n");
client = server.accept();
clientInfo.append( "Connection " + counter +
" received from: " +
client.getInetAddress().getHostName());
// Create thread to handle this connection
ClientThread t = new ClientThread(client);
t.start();
counter++;
}
}
catch ( Exception e)
{
System.err.println(e.getMessage());
}
}
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 11
8. The code above instantiates a ServerSocket object that registers an available
port number of 5001 and a maximum number of clients that can request connections
of 100. The server must use a port that no other services are using. (If there is any
problem using 5001, which is usually safe, ask the instructor for a different port
number.) Next, the server informs the user that it is waiting for a connection by
writing text to the JTextArea, and it waits for a client to request a connection by
calling the accept method in the ServerSocket class. The server blocks until
a connection is accepted; at that point, it creates the Thread to handle the
connection and calls its start() method.
9. Compile and run your application. You should see the window below, indicating the
server is waiting for connections. If the port is in use by another application, you will
see an error message. Exit the Server application.
Create the Client
The client is simpler than the server, and will implement the following steps:


Create a Socket to connect to the server by specifying the server’s internet
address and port number.
A successful connection returns a Socket, which is connected to an
InputStream and an OutputStream used to communicate with the
server.
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 12


The client uses these streams to communicate with the server.
When the communication is finished, the client closes the connection.
Client/server applications must use the same protocol, so that both can determine when
the transmission is complete.
1. Create a new directory c:\labs\ModuleNineClient.
2. Create a new Java application called Client. Extend a Swing Jframe.
add the main() method later.
We will
3. Add a constructor as follows:
public Client()
{
super("Socket Client");
setContentPane( getMainPanel() );
setSize( 400,300 );
}
4. Add code to create a GUI that does the following:
a. Add a JTextArea to the Center part of the frame’s BorderLayout.
Set the following properties of the JTextArea:
i.
ii.
iii.
name = serverInfo
rows = 20
columns = 40
b. Add a JPanel to the North part of the frame’s BorderLayout. Make
sure the JPanel has a FlowLayout setting and set its alignment set to
Left.
c. Add a JLabel to the JPanel in the North part of the frame. Set the text of
the JLabel to “Enter message: “
d. Add a JTextField to the JPanel in the North part of the frame. Name the
JTextField toServer and set the following properties:
i.
ii.
iii.
name = toServer
enabled = false
columns = 20
e. Data will be sent to the server when it is entered into the JTextField. To do
this, an EventListener needs to be added to the toServer JTextField.
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 13
5. The code that creates the GUI is shown below:
private JPanel getMainPanel()
{
JPanel panel = new JPanel( new BorderLayout() );
serverInfo = new JTextArea(20, 40);
serverInfo.setEditable(false);
panel.add( new JScrollPane(serverInfo),
BorderLayout.CENTER );
toServer = new JTextField(20);
toServer.setEditable(false);
toServer.addActionListener(new ActionListener()
{
public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e)
{
sendData( e.getActionCommand());
}
});
toServer.setEnabled(false);
JPanel northPanel = new JPanel(new
FlowLayout(FlowLayout.LEFT));
northPanel.add( new JLabel( "Enter message: " ) );
northPanel.add( toServer );
panel.add( northPanel, BorderLayout.NORTH );
return panel;
}
Note the use of the JScrollPane to enable the text area to scroll as neededs.
6. Add process() and sendData() methods similar to the ones added for the
Server class.
public void process()
{
Socket client;
String message = "";
try
{
// Create a Socket to make connection.
serverInfo.setText( "Attempting connection to : " +
INETADDR + " on port: " + PORT);
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 14
client = new Socket(InetAddress.getByName(INETADDR),
PORT);
serverInfo.append("\nConnected to: " +
client.getInetAddress().getHostName());
// Get the input and output streams.
output = new
ObjectOutputStream(client.getOutputStream());
output.flush();
input = new
ObjectInputStream(client.getInputStream());
serverInfo.append("\nI/O streams successfully
created\n");
// Enable client to server input field for messages
toServer.setEnabled(true);
// Process the connection
do
{
try
{
message = (String) input.readObject();
serverInfo.append("\n[from server]
"+message+"\n");
serverInfo.setCaretPosition(serverInfo.getText().length());
}
catch (ClassNotFoundException cnfex)
{
serverInfo.append("\nUnknown object type
received\n");
}
} while
(!message.toUpperCase().equals("TERMINATE"));
toServer.setEnabled(false);
serverInfo.setEnabled(false);
// Close connection.
serverInfo.append("\nReceived TERMINATE: Closing
connection.\n");
output.close();
input.close();
client.close();
}
catch (EOFException eof)
{
System.out.println("\nServer terminated
connection");
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 15
}
catch (IOException e)
{
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
private void sendData(String s)
{
try
{
output.writeObject(s);
output.flush();
serverInfo.append("\nSent from Client to Server:" +
s);
}
catch (IOException cnfex)
{
serverInfo.append("\nError writing object");
}
}
7. Add the following as class variables:
private
private
private
private
final int PORT = 5001;
final String INETADDR = "127.0.0.1";
ObjectOutputStream output;
ObjectInputStream input;
8. Add the following import statements before the class definition:
import
import
import
import
import
java.io.*;
java.net.*;
java.awt.*;
java.awt.event.*;
javax.swing.*;
9. Instantiate a Client object in the main() method, add a listener to close the
application, and run the client.
Client app = new Client();
app.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter()
{
public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e)
{
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 16
System.exit( 0 );
}
});
app.setVisible(true);
app.process();
10. Save the files and compile the application.
11. Run the client application. The window should contain the message “Attempting
connection,” but there will be “Connection Refused” error shown in the
text area because the server is not running. Exit the client application.
12. Test the client/server application by starting the server. The Server window will open
and display the message “Waiting for connection.” Start the client and the Client
window will open and display the message “Attempting connection.” Both windows
should indicate they have I/O streams, and the server should send a “Connection
successful” message to the client.
The server application,
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 17
The Client application,
13. Enter First Message: Hello into the top text field, then press the <Enter> key. The
Server window should indicate that the text was received, and the echo should appear
in the Client window.
The server responds the reception of the message:
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 18
14. Enter TerMinaTE into the Client window to end communication between the client
and the server. The windows below reflect the result.
The server responds:
15. The string is converted to upper case before being compared to the ending
TERMINATE string, allowing the user to type any combination of upper and lower
case characters. To verify that the server can handle more than one connection, start
multiple clients before closing all windows.
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 19
Solution
BrowseURL.java
import javax.swing.event.*;
import javax.swing.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.applet.AppletContext;
/**
* Module 8: An applet that interacts with a web browser.
*/
public class BrowseURL extends JApplet
{
/** links and a link descriptin are stored in this array */
private LinkStore[] myLinks = new LinkStore[7];
/**
* zero-argument constructor that creates the array of links
* and creates the GUI.
*/
public BrowseURL()
{
super();
try
{
// create an array of LinkStore objects.
URL url = new URL("http://www.google.com");
myLinks[0] = new LinkStore("Google", url );
url = new URL("http://java.sun.com");
myLinks[1] = new LinkStore("Sun's Java Site", url );
url = new URL("http://codeguru.earthweb.com/java");
myLinks[2] = new LinkStore("Java Programmer's Sourcebook", url );
url = new URL("http://www.afu.com/javafaq.html");
myLinks[3] = new LinkStore("Java Programmer' FAQ", url );
url = new URL("http://java.sun.com/products/jfc/tsc/index.html");
myLinks[4] = new LinkStore("The Swing Connection", url );
url = new URL("http://java.sun.com/products/jlf/at/book/");
myLinks[5] = new LinkStore("Swing Examples", url );
url = new URL("http://www.javaworld.com/columns/jw-tips-index.shtml");
myLinks[6] = new LinkStore("Java Tips Index", url );
} catch (MalformedURLException e)
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 20
{
JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(this,
e.getMessage(), "Malformed URL",
JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE);
}
setContentPane( getMainPanel() );
}
/**
* constructs the primary GUI panel.
*/
private JPanel getMainPanel()
{
JPanel panel = new JPanel( new FlowLayout() );
panel.setBackground(Color.white);
JList myJList = new JList();
myJList.setSelectionMode(javax.swing.ListSelectionModel.SINGLE_SELECTION);
myJList.addListSelectionListener(new ListSelectionListener()
{
public void valueChanged(ListSelectionEvent e)
{
JList list = (JList) e.getSource();
LinkStore ls = (LinkStore) list.getSelectedValue();
getAppletContext().showDocument(ls.url);
}
});
myJList.setListData(myLinks);
panel.add( myJList );
return panel;
}
/**
* init stub -- not used.
*/
public void init()
{
}
/**
* Store a set of name-value pairs representing a
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 21
* URL and its description.
*/
class LinkStore
{
/** a description of the URL */
private String title;
/** a link */
private URL url;
/**
* Create a LinkStore and initialize its URL and
* description.
* @param title a description of the link.
* @param url
the address of the link.
*/
LinkStore(String title, URL url)
{
this.title = title;
this.url = url;
}
/** @return the description of the link */
public String getTitle()
{
return title;
}
/** @return the link */
public URL getURL()
{
return url;
}
/** @return a representative string for this object */
public String toString()
{
return title;
}
}
}
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 22
BrowseURL.html
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>BrowseURL</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<h2 align="center">URL Library</h2>
<APPLET code="BrowseURL.class" width="400" height="200"></APPLET>
<p><i>Note: The background color of the applet has been set to the background
color of this web page.
</p>
</BODY>
</HTML>
Server.java
import java.io.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import javax.swing.*;
/**
* Module 8: A simple socket server example. This server is able
* to receive java objects sent from a client application. To
* terminate the service from the client, send the "terminate"
* string.
*/
public class Server extends JFrame
{
/** the conversation with the client is displayed here */
JTextArea clientInfo = new JTextArea(20, 40);
/** the server will listen on this port number */
public static final int PORT = 5001;
/** the server can handle this many clients */
public static final int NQUEUE = 100;
/**
* Zero-argument constructor creates a new Server and
* initializes its GUI.
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 23
*/
public Server()
{
super("Socket Server");
getContentPane().add( new JScrollPane(clientInfo) );
setSize( 400,300 );
}
/**
* process requests from the client and send a server response.
*/
public void process()
{
ServerSocket server;
Socket client;
int counter = 1;
try
{
// Create a ServerSocket.
server = new ServerSocket(PORT, NQUEUE);
clientInfo.setText( "\nCreated ServerSocket on Port: "
+ PORT + " for queue of "
+ NQUEUE + " connections\n");
while ( true )
{
// Wait for a connection.
clientInfo.append("\nWaiting for connection\n");
client = server.accept();
clientInfo.append( "Connection " + counter +
" received from: " +
client.getInetAddress().getHostName());
// Create thread to handle this connection
ClientThread t = new ClientThread(client);
t.start();
counter++;
}
}
catch ( Exception e)
{
System.err.println(e.getMessage());
}
}
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 24
/**
* Thread class to handle a single client connection.
*/
class ClientThread extends Thread
{
Socket client;
ObjectOutputStream output;
ObjectInputStream input;
ClientThread(Socket client)
{
this.client = client;
}
public void run()
{
try
{
// Get input and output streams.
output = new ObjectOutputStream(client.getOutputStream() );
output.flush();
input = new ObjectInputStream(client.getInputStream() );
clientInfo.append( "\nCreated I/O streams\n" );
// Process connection.
String message = "Connection successful";
output.writeObject(message);
output.flush();
do
{
try
{
message = (String) input.readObject();
sendData(message);
clientInfo.append("\nReceived from Client: " + message + "\n");
clientInfo.setCaretPosition(clientInfo.getText().length());
}
catch (ClassNotFoundException cnfex)
{
clientInfo.append("\nUnknown object type received\n");
}
} while (!message.toUpperCase().equals("TERMINATE"));
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Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 25
// Close connection.
clientInfo.append("\nReceived TERMINATE: Closing connection.\n");
output.close();
input.close();
client.close();
}
catch(Exception e)
{
System.err.println(e.getMessage());
}
}
private void sendData(String s)
{
try
{
output.writeObject(s);
output.flush();
clientInfo.append("\nSent to Client: " + s + "\n");
}
catch ( IOException cnfex )
{
clientInfo.append("\nError writing object");
}
}
}
/**
* Start the socket server application.
*/
public static void main( String[] args )
{
Server myServer = new Server();
myServer.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter()
{
public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e)
{
System.exit( 0 );
}
});
myServer.setVisible(true);
myServer.process();
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 26
}
}
Client.java
import java.io.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import javax.swing.*;
/**
* Module 8: A simple socket client example. This client will
* connect with this module's server and interact with a user
* to send strings to the server and print the server's response
* to a text area.
*/
public class Client extends JFrame
{
/** the client will connect to a server listening on this port */
private static final int PORT = 5001;
/** the client will connect to a server on this host */
private static final String INETADDR = "127.0.0.1";
/** the server's response is printed to this text area */
JTextArea serverInfo;
/** Strings entered into this text field are sent to the server */
JTextField toServer;
/** The server's response arrives on this stream */
ObjectInputStream input;
/** The client's requests are sent on this stream */
ObjectOutputStream output;
/**
* zero-argument constructor creates the clients gui.
*/
public Client()
{
super("Socket Client");
setContentPane( getMainPanel() );
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 27
setSize( 400,300 );
}
/**
* Create the client's main panel.
*/
private JPanel getMainPanel()
{
JPanel panel = new JPanel( new BorderLayout() );
serverInfo = new JTextArea(20, 40);
serverInfo.setEditable(false);
panel.add( new JScrollPane(serverInfo), BorderLayout.CENTER );
toServer = new JTextField(20);
toServer.addActionListener(new ActionListener()
{
public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e)
{
sendData( e.getActionCommand());
}
});
toServer.setEnabled(false);
JPanel northPanel = new JPanel( new FlowLayout( FlowLayout.LEFT ) );
northPanel.add( new JLabel( "Enter message: " ) );
northPanel.add( toServer );
panel.add( northPanel, BorderLayout.NORTH );
return panel;
}
/**
* Loops sending user input to the server and processing server
* responses.
*/
public void process()
{
Socket client;
String message = "";
try
{
// Create a Socket to make connection.
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Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 28
serverInfo.setText( "Attempting connection to : " +
INETADDR + " on port: " + PORT);
client = new Socket(InetAddress.getByName(INETADDR), PORT);
serverInfo.append("\nConnected to: " +
client.getInetAddress().getHostName());
// Get the input and output streams.
output = new ObjectOutputStream(client.getOutputStream());
output.flush();
input = new ObjectInputStream(client.getInputStream());
serverInfo.append("\nI/O streams successfully created\n");
// Enable client to server input field for messages
toServer.setEnabled(true);
// Process the connection
do
{
try
{
message = (String) input.readObject();
serverInfo.append("\n[from server] " + message + "\n");
serverInfo.setCaretPosition(serverInfo.getText().length());
}
catch (ClassNotFoundException cnfex)
{
serverInfo.append("\nUnknown object type received\n");
}
} while (!message.toUpperCase().equals("TERMINATE"));
toServer.setEnabled(false);
serverInfo.setEnabled(false);
// Close connection.
serverInfo.append("\nReceived TERMINATE: Closing connection.\n");
output.close();
input.close();
client.close();
}
catch (EOFException eof)
{
serverInfo.append( "\nServer terminated connection");
}
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Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 29
catch (IOException e)
{
serverInfo.append( "\n*** ERROR ***\n" + e.getMessage() );
}
}
/**
* Send a string to the server.
*/
private void sendData(String s)
{
try
{
output.writeObject(s);
output.flush();
serverInfo.append("\n> " + s);
}
catch (IOException cnfex)
{
serverInfo.append("\nError writing object");
}
}
/**
* run the client application.
*/
public static void main( String[] args )
{
Client myClient = new Client();
myClient.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter()
{
public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e)
{
System.exit( 0 );
}
});
myClient.setVisible(true);
myClient.process();
}
}
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.
Networking Java Applications – Exercise: Page 30
Copyright ©2008, Custom Training Institute. All rights reserved.