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DEFINITIONS & NOTES – ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Particle
Location
Electron
Proton
Neutron
Outside
Nucleus
Inside
Nucleus
Inside
Nucleus
Symbol
Relative
Charge
e-
-1 or 1-
p+
+1 or 1+
0 or n
0
Relative Mass
Mass
(proton = 1)
Analogy
1
Pickle
≈
(very
small mass)
2000
Watermelon
1
(large mass)
1
Text book
NUCLEUS – the central part of the atom. It contains the protons and neutrons.
ELECTRONS – negatively charged particles circling the nucleus. They have very
little mass.
PROTONS – positively charged particles in the nucleus. The number of protons
determines the element.
NEUTRONS – particles with no charge in the nucleus. They help create stability.
The glue of the nucleus.
ATOMIC NUMBER – The number of protons in the nucleus. The whole number on
the periodic table.(Integer) 1,2,3…..
ATOMIC MASS – mass of a single atom of an element, measured in atomic mass units. The
ATOMIC MASS IS THE number including a decimal on the periodic table.
ATOMIC MASS UNIT – the mass of a single atom of H, abbreviated amu
ISOTOPES – atoms of an element with varying numbers of neutrons in nucleus
Atomic Number, Atomic Mass and Molar Mass
Nuclear
Symbols:
MASS NUMBER –
 sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
 used for designating the different isotopes
 not listed in periodic table because # of neutrons varies in Isotopes
MASS NUMBER = (# OF PROTONS )+ (# OF NEUTRONS)
NUCLEAR SYMBOL
General Form
Mass #
Atomic #
HYPHEN NOTATION
General Form
X
X – Mass #
Example
Example
13
6
C – 13
C
Read “13, 6 Carbon”
Read “Carbon 13”
Three Isotopes of Carbon are known:
12
6
13
6
C
14
6
C
C
How many neutrons does each Isotope of Carbon have?
Fill in the missing information.
Nuclear
Symbol
# of
protons
# of
neutrons
# of
electrons
Electron Configuration
Cl
17
5
17
2,8,7
Be
4
2
4
2,2
20
8
20
2,8,8,2
16
11
16
22
17
6
4
5
2,8,8
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