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Lecture Presentation Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT Electronic Structure of Atoms LESSON 1 6-1 The Wave Nature of Light Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Electronic Structure • This chapter is all about electronic structure—the arrangement and energy of electrons. • It may seem odd to start by talking about waves. However, extremely small particles have properties that can only be explained in this manner! Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Waves • To understand the electronic structure of atoms, one must understand the nature of electromagnetic radiation. • The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves is the wavelength (). © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Electronic Structure of Atoms Properties of Waves Wavelength () is the distance between identical points on successive waves (meters). Amplitude is the vertical distance from the midline of a wave to the peak or trough. Properties of Waves Frequency (n) is the number of waves that pass through a particular point in 1 second (Hz = 1 cycle/s). The speed (u) of the wave = x n Waves • The number of waves passing a given point per unit of time is the frequency (n). • For waves traveling at the same velocity, the longer the wavelength, the smaller the frequency. • If the time associated with the lines to the left is one second, then the frequencies would be 2 s–1 and 4 s–1, Electronic respectively. Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Maxwell (1873), proposed that visible light consists of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic radiation is the emission and transmission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Speed of light (c) in vacuum = 3.00 x 108 m/s All electromagnetic radiation xn=c Red Light (~700nm) has a longer wavelength than violet (~400nm) Electromagnetic Radiation • All electromagnetic radiation travels at the same velocity: The speed of light (c) is 3.00 108 m/s. c = n Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Wavelength x Frequency = Speed m x n 1 s = c m s c is defined to be the rate of travel of all electromagnetic energy in a vacuum and is a constant value— speed of light. m 8 c = 3.00 x 10 s Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum The light blue glow given off by mercury streetlamps has a frequency of 6.88 x 1014 s-1 (or, Hz). What is the wavelength in nanometers? = c n m 8 3.00 x 10 s 1 x 109 nm m = 6.88 x = 436 nm 1014 1 s A photon has a frequency of 6.0 x 104 Hz. Convert this frequency into wavelength (nm). Does this frequency fall in the visible region? Hwk: page 249 - 254: 2, GF6.3, GF6.4, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 84 Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. LESSON 2 6-2 Quantized Energy and Photons Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Nature of Energy The wave nature of light does not explain how an object can glow when its temperature increases. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Nature of Energy—Quanta Max Planck explained it by assuming that energy comes in packets called quanta (singular: quantum). Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Photoelectric Effect • Einstein used quanta to explain the photoelectric effect. • Each metal has a different energy at which it ejects electrons. At lower energy, electrons are not emitted. • He concluded that energy is proportional to frequency: E = hn where h is Planck’s constant, 6.626 10−34 J∙s. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Particle Nature of Light Investigations carried out by Max Planck (blackbody radiation) and Albert Einstein (photoelectric effect) discredited the notion that all properties of light could be explained in terms of its wave nature. Today we considered light to be generated as a stream of particles called photons, whose energy is given by the Einstein equation E=hν=hc/λ h = 6.626 x 10-34 J·s Quantum theory is used to explain any interaction of energy and matter. Light is made of packets of energy called photons. When copper is bombarded with high-energy electrons, X rays are emitted. Calculate the energy (in joules) associated with the photons if the wavelength of the X rays is 0.154 nm. Calculate the energy, in joules, of a photon emitted by an oxygen atom with 557.7 nm. Calculate the energy, in kilojoules, of a mole of such photons. Hwk: page 249 - 254: 23, 25, 27, 29, 33 Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. LESSON 3 6-3 Line Spectra and the Bohr Model Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Atomic Emissions Another mystery in the early twentieth century involved the emission spectra observed from energy emitted by atoms and molecules. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Hydrogen Spectrum • Johann Balmer (1885) discovered a simple formula relating the four lines to integers. • Johannes Rydberg advanced this formula. • Neils Bohr explained why this mathematical relationship works. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Electronic Structure of Atoms Continuous vs. Line Spectra • For atoms and molecules, one does not observe a continuous spectrum (the “rainbow”), as one gets from a white light source. • Only a line spectrum of discrete wavelengths is observed. Each element has a unique line spectrum. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Line Emission Spectrum of Hydrogen Atoms The Bohr Model • Niels Bohr adopted Planck’s assumption and explained these phenomena in this way: 1. Electrons in an atom can only occupy certain orbits (corresponding to certain energies). Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Bohr Model 2. Electrons in permitted orbits have specific, “allowed” energies; these energies will not be radiated from the atom. 3. Energy is only absorbed or emitted in such a way as to move an electron from one “allowed” energy state to another; the energy is defined by E = hn Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Bohr Model The energy absorbed or emitted from the process of electron promotion or demotion can be calculated by the equation E = −hcRH ( 1 1 – n f2 ni2 ) where RH is the Rydberg constant, 1.097 107 m−1, and ni and nf are the initial and final energy levels of the electron. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Limitations of the Bohr Model • It only works for hydrogen! • Classical physics would result in an electron falling into the positively charged nucleus. Bohr simply assumed it would not! • Circular motion is not wave-like in nature. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Important Ideas from the Bohr Model Points that are incorporated into the current atomic model include the following: 1) Electrons exist only in certain discrete energy levels. 2) Energy is involved in the transition of an electron from one level to another. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Bohr’s Model of the Atom (1913) 1. e- can only have specific (quantized) energy values 2. light is emitted as emoves from one energy level to another En = -RH ( 1 n2 ) n (principal quantum number) = 1,2,3,… RH (Rydberg constant) = 2.18 x 10-18J E = hn E = hn ni = 3 ni = 3 ni = 2 nf = 2 nnf f==11 Ephoton = E = Ef - Ei 1 Ef = -RH ( 2 nf 1 Ei = -RH ( 2 ni 1 E = RH( 2 ni ) ) 1 n2f ) Calculate the wavelength (in nm) of a photon emitted by a hydrogen atom when its electron drops from the n = 5 state to the n = 3 state. LESSON 4 6-4 The Wave Behavior of Matter Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Wave Nature of Matter • Louis de Broglie theorized that if light can have material properties, matter should exhibit wave properties. • He demonstrated that the relationship between mass and wavelength was The wave nature of light is used to produce this electron micrograph. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. h = mv Electronic Structure of Atoms Why is e- energy quantized? De Broglie (1924) reasoned that e- is both particle and wave. 2pr = n = h/mu u = velocity of em = mass of e- What is the de Broglie wavelength (in nm) associated with a 2.5 g Ping-Pong ball traveling at 15.6 m/s? The Uncertainty Principle Heisenberg showed that the more precisely the momentum of a particle is known, the less precisely is its position is known: h (x) (mv) 4p Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Hwk: page 249 - 254: 37, 39, 47, 49 Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. LESSON 5 6-5 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Quantum Mechanics • Erwin Schrödinger developed a mathematical treatment into which both the wave and particle nature of matter could be incorporated. • This is known as quantum mechanics. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Quantum Mechanics • The solution of Schrödinger’s wave equation is designated with a lowercase Greek psi (). • The square of the wave equation, 2, gives the electron density, or probability of where an electron is likely to be at any given time. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Schrodinger Wave Equation In 1926 Schrodinger wrote an equation that described both the particle and wave nature of the eWave function (Y) describes: 1. energy of e- with a given Y 2. probability of finding e- in a volume of space Schrodingers equation can only be solved exactly for the hydrogen atom. Must approximate its solution for multi-electron systems. Quantum Numbers • Solving the wave equation gives a set of wave functions, or orbitals, and their corresponding energies. • Each orbital describes a spatial distribution of electron density. • An orbital is described by a set of three quantum numbers. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Principal Quantum Number (n) • The principal quantum number, n, describes the energy level on which the orbital resides. • The values of n are integers ≥ 1. • These correspond to the values in the Bohr model. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Schrodinger Wave Equation Y = fn(n, l, ml, ms) principal quantum number n n = 1, 2, 3, 4, …. distance of e- from the nucleus 2n2 n=1 n=2 n=3 Where 90% of the e- density is found for the 1s orbital e- density (1s orbital) falls off rapidly as distance from nucleus increases Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l) • This quantum number defines the shape of the orbital. • Allowed values of l are integers ranging from 0 to n − 1. • We use letter designations to communicate the different values of l and, therefore, the shapes and types of orbitals. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l) Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Schrodinger Wave Equation Y = fn(n, l, ml, ms) angular momentum quantum number l for a given value of n, l = 0, 1, 2, 3, … n-1 n = 1, l = 0 n = 2, l = 0 or 1 n = 3, l = 0, 1, or 2 l=0 l=1 l=2 l=3 s orbital p orbital d orbital f orbital Shape of the “volume” of space that the e- occupies l = 0 (s orbitals) l = 1 (p orbitals) l = 2 (d orbitals) Magnetic Quantum Number (ml) • The magnetic quantum number describes the three-dimensional orientation of the orbital. • Allowed values of ml are integers ranging from −l to l: −l ≤ ml ≤ l • Therefore, on any given energy level, there can be up to 1 s orbital, 3 p orbitals, 5 d orbitals, 7 f orbitals, and so forth. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Magnetic Quantum Number (ml) • Orbitals with the same value of n form an electron shell. • Different orbital types within a shell are subshells. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Schrodinger Wave Equation Y = fn(n, l, ml, ms) magnetic quantum number ml for a given value of l ml = -l, …., 0, …. +l if l = 1 (p orbital), ml = -1, 0, or 1 if l = 2 (d orbital), ml = -2, -1, 0, 1, or 2 orientation of the orbital in space Schrodinger Wave Equation Y = fn(n, l, ml, ms) spin quantum number ms ms = +½ or -½ ms = +½ ms = -½ LESSON 6 6-6 Representations of Orbitals Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. s Orbitals • The value of l for s orbitals is 0. • They are spherical in shape. • The radius of the sphere increases with the value of n. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. s Orbitals • For an ns orbital, the number of peaks is n. • For an ns orbital, the number of nodes (where there is zero probability of finding an electron) is n – 1. • As n increases, the electron density is more spread out and there is a greater probability of finding an electron further from the nucleus. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. p Orbitals • The value of l for p orbitals is 1. • They have two lobes with a node between them. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. d Orbitals • The value of l for a d orbital is 2. • Four of the five d orbitals have four lobes; the other resembles a p orbital with a doughnut around the center. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. ml = -1 ml = -2 ml = 0 ml = -1 ml = 0 ml = 1 ml = 1 ml = 2 f Orbitals • Very complicated shapes (not shown in text) • Seven equivalent orbitals in a sublevel • l=3 Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Hwk: page 249 - 254: 55, 57, 59, 61 Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. LESSON 7 6-7 Many-Electron Atoms Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Energies of Orbitals—Hydrogen • For a one-electron hydrogen atom, orbitals on the same energy level have the same energy. • Chemists call them degenerate orbitals. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Energies of Orbitals— Many-electron Atoms • As the number of electrons increases, so does the repulsion between them. • Therefore, in atoms with more than one electron, not all orbitals on the same energy level are degenerate. • Orbital sets in the same sublevel are still degenerate. • Energy levels start to overlap in energy (e.g., 4s is lower Electronic in energy than 3d.) Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Spin Quantum Number, ms • In the 1920s, it was discovered that two electrons in the same orbital do not have exactly the same energy. • The “spin” of an electron describes its magnetic field, which affects its energy. • This led to the spin quantum number, ms. • The spin quantum number has only two allowed values, +½ and –½. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Pauli Exclusion Principle • No two electrons in the same atom can have exactly the same energy. • Therefore, no two electrons in the same atom can have identical sets of quantum numbers. • This means that every electron in an atom must differ by at least one of the four quantum number values: n, l, ml, and ms. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Schrodinger Wave Equation Y = fn(n, l, ml, ms) Existence (and energy) of electron in atom is described by its unique wave function Y. Pauli exclusion principle - no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers. Each seat is uniquely identified (E, R12, S8) Each seat can hold only one individual at a time Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. LESSON 8 6-8 Electron Configurations Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Electron Configurations • The way electrons are distributed in an 5 atom is called its electron configuration. • The most stable organization is the lowest possible energy, called the ground state. • Each component consists of – a number denoting the energy level; 4p Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Electron Configurations 5 4p • The way electrons are distributed in an atom is called its electron configuration. • The most stable organization is the lowest possible energy, called the ground state. • Each component consists of – a number denoting the energy level; – a letter denoting the type of orbital; Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Electron Configurations 5 4p • The way electrons are distributed in an atom is called its electron configuration. • The most stable organization is the lowest possible energy, called the ground state. • Each component consists of – a number denoting the energy level; – a letter denoting the type of orbital; – a superscript denoting the number of electrons in those orbitals. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Orbital Diagrams • Each box in the diagram represents one orbital. • Half-arrows represent the electrons. • The direction of the arrow represents the relative spin of the electron. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. “Fill up” electrons in lowest energy orbitals (Aufbau principle) ?? B 1s22s22p1 B 5 electrons Be 1s22s2 Be 4 electrons Li 1s22s1 Li 3 electrons He 1s2 He 2 electrons H 1s1 H 1 electron Order of orbitals (filling) in multi-electron atom 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s Outermost subshell being filled with electrons The most stable arrangement of electrons in subshells is the one with the greatest number of parallel spins (Hunds rule). C 6 electrons C 1s22s22p2 N 7 electrons N 1s22s22p3 O 8 electrons O 1s22s22p4 F 9 electrons F 1s22s22p5 Ne 10 electrons Ne 1s22s22p6 Hund’s Rule “For degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is maximized.” This means that, for a set of orbitals in the same sublevel, there must be one electron in each orbital before pairing and the electrons have the same spin, as much as possible. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Electronic Structure of Atoms What is the electron configuration of Mg? What are the possible quantum numbers for the last (outermost) electron in Cl? Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Condensed Electron Configurations • Elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in the outer most shell. These are the valence electrons. • The filled inner shell electrons are called core electrons. These include completely filled d or f sublevels. • We write a shortened version of an electron configuration using brackets around a noble gas symbol and listing only valence electrons. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. ns2np6 ns2np5 ns2np4 ns2np3 ns2np2 ns2np1 d10 d5 d1 ns2 ns1 Ground State Electron Configurations of the Elements 4f 5f © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Electronic Structure of Atoms Do examples of electron configuration, orbital notation, and shorthand method. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Paramagnetic unpaired electrons 2p Diamagnetic all electrons paired 2p Electron Configurations of Cations and Anions Of Representative Elements Na [Ne]3s1 Na+ [Ne] Ca [Ar]4s2 Ca2+ [Ar] Al [Ne]3s23p1 Al3+ [Ne] Atoms gain electrons so that anion has a noble-gas outer electron configuration. Atoms lose electrons so that cation has a noblegas outer electron configuration. H 1s1 H- 1s2 or [He] F 1s22s22p5 F- 1s22s22p6 or [Ne] O2- 1s22s22p6 or [Ne] O 1s22s22p4 N 1s22s22p3 N3- 1s22s22p6 or [Ne] -1 -2 -3 +3 +2 +1 Cations and Anions Of Representative Elements Na+: [Ne] Al3+: [Ne] O2-: 1s22s22p6 or [Ne] F-: 1s22s22p6 or [Ne] N3-: 1s22s22p6 or [Ne] Na+, Al3+, F-, O2-, and N3- are all isoelectronic with Ne What neutral atom is isoelectronic with H- ? Electron Configurations of Cations of Transition Meta When a cation is formed from an atom of a transition metal, electrons are always removed first from the ns orbital and then from the (n – 1)d orbitals. Fe: [Ar]4s23d6 Fe2+: [Ar]4s03d6 or [Ar]3d6 Fe3+: [Ar]4s03d5 or [Ar]3d5 Mn: [Ar]4s23d5 Mn2+: [Ar]4s03d5 or [Ar]3d5 LESSON 9 6-9 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Periodic Table • We fill orbitals in increasing order of energy. • Different blocks on the periodic table correspond to different types of orbitals: s = blue, p = pink (s and p are representative elements); d = orange (transition elements); f = tan (lanthanides and actinides, or inner transition elements) Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Some Anomalies Some irregularities occur when there are enough electrons to half-fill s and d orbitals on a given row. Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chromium as an Anomaly • For instance, the electron configuration for chromium is [Ar] 4s1 3d5 rather than the expected [Ar] 4s2 3d4. • This occurs because the 4s and 3d orbitals are very close in energy. • These anomalies occur in f-block atoms Electronic with f and d orbitals, as well. Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Hwk: page 249 - 254: 71, 72, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80 Quiz to follow Electronic Structure of Atoms © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Review Questions Chapter 6 Stoichiometry © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The wavelength of a photon multiplied by its frequency equals a. b. c. d. c, the speed of light. h, Planck’s constant. Avogadro’s Number. 4.184. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The wavelength of a photon multiplied by its frequency equals a. b. c. d. c, the speed of light. h, Planck’s constant. Avogadro’s Number. 4.184. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The energy of a photon divided by its frequency equals a. b. c. d. c, the speed of light. h, Planck’s constant. Avogadro’s Number. 4.184. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The energy of a photon divided by its frequency equals a. b. c. d. c, the speed of light. h, Planck’s constant. Avogadro’s Number. 4.184. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The “rainbow of colors” produced by sunlight striking a prism is called a. b. c. d. a continuous spectrum. monochromatic light. a line spectrum. a Balmer series. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The “rainbow of colors” produced by sunlight striking a prism is called a. b. c. d. a continuous spectrum. monochromatic light. a line spectrum. a Balmer series. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The lowest energy state of a hydrogen atom is called its _______ state. a. b. c. d. bottom ground fundamental original © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The lowest energy state of a hydrogen atom is called its _______ state. a. b. c. d. bottom ground fundamental original © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. When an electron moves from the n = 3 orbit to the n = 2 orbit of a hydrogen atom, what wavelength of light is emitted? a. b. c. d. 410 nm 434 nm 486 nm 656 nm © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. When an electron moves from the n = 3 orbit to the n = 2 orbit of a hydrogen atom, what wavelength of light is emitted? a. b. c. d. 410 nm 434 nm 486 nm 656 nm © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. When an electron moves from the n = 4 orbit to the n = 2 orbit of a hydrogen atom, what wavelength of light is emitted? a. b. c. d. 410 nm 434 nm 486 nm 656 nm © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. When an electron moves from the n = 4 orbit to the n = 2 orbit of a hydrogen atom, what wavelength of light is emitted? a. b. c. d. 410 nm 434 nm 486 nm 656 nm © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. “It is impossible to simultaneously know both the position and the momentum of an electron in an atom” is a. b. c. d. Hund’s rule. deBroglie’s hypothesis. Pauli’s exclusion principle. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. “It is impossible to simultaneously know both the position and the momentum of an electron in an atom” is a. b. c. d. Hund’s rule. deBroglie’s hypothesis. Pauli’s exclusion principle. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. “No two electrons in an atom may have the same values for all four quantum numbers” is a. b. c. d. Hund’s rule. deBroglie’s hypothesis. Pauli’s exclusion principle. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. “No two electrons in an atom may have the same values for all four quantum numbers” is a. b. c. d. Hund’s rule. deBroglie’s hypothesis. Pauli’s exclusion principle. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The line spectrum of hydrogen includes lines at 447, 502, 587, and 668 nm. The line at ___ nm represents the most energetic transition. a. 447 c. 587 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. b. 502 d. 668 The line spectrum of hydrogen includes lines at 447, 502, 587, and 668 nm. The line at ___ nm represents the most energetic transition. a. 447 c. 587 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. b. 502 d. 668 Which sequence lists types of electromagnetic energy in order of increasing energy? a. b. c. d. microwave, IR, visible, UV IR, microwave, UV, visible UV, visible, IR, microwave visible, UV, microwave, IR © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Which sequence lists types of electromagnetic energy in order of increasing energy? a. b. c. d. microwave, IR, visible, UV IR, microwave, UV, visible UV, visible, IR, microwave visible, UV, microwave, IR © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. n and l are the principal and angular momentum quantum numbers. When n = 3, the allowed values of l are a. b. c. d. 1, 2, and 3. 1 and 2. 0, 1, 2, and 3. 0, 1, and 2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. n and l are the principal and angular momentum quantum numbers. When n = 3, the allowed values of l are a. b. c. d. 1, 2, and 3. 1 and 2. 0, 1, 2, and 3. 0, 1, and 2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Which set of quantum numbers correctly describes an electron in the outermost orbital of a sulfur atom? a. b. c. d. n = 3, l = 2, ml = –2 n = 2, l = 1, ml = –1 n = 2, l = 0, ml = 0 n = 3, l = 1, ml = –1 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Which set of quantum numbers correctly describes an electron in the outermost orbital of a sulfur atom? a. b. c. d. n = 3, l = 2, ml = –2 n = 2, l = 1, ml = –1 n = 2, l = 0, ml = 0 n = 3, l = 1, ml = –1 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Which set of values is not correct for an electron occupying a 4d orbital? a. b. c. d. n = 4, l = 2, ml = 0 n = 4, l = 2, ml = –1/2 n = 3, l = 4, ml = 1 n = 3, l = 1, ml = 1 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Which set of values is not correct for an electron occupying a 4d orbital? a. b. c. d. n = 4, l = 2, ml = 0 n = 4, l = 2, ml = –1/2 n = 3, l = 4, ml = 1 n = 3, l = 1, ml = 1 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The only allowed values for the spin magnetic quantum number are a. b. c. d. 0 and 1. 0 and +1/2. +1/2 and 1. +1/2 and –1/2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The only allowed values for the spin magnetic quantum number are a. b. c. d. 0 and 1. 0 and +1/2. +1/2 and 1. +1/2 and –1/2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. s orbitals are shaped like a. b. c. d. four-leaf clovers. dumbbells. spheres. triangles. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. s orbitals are shaped like a. b. c. d. four-leaf clovers. dumbbells. spheres. triangles. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. p orbitals are shaped like a. b. c. d. four-leaf clovers. dumbbells. spheres. triangles. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. p orbitals are shaped like a. b. c. d. four-leaf clovers. dumbbells. spheres. triangles. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. At a node, the probability of finding an electron is ___ %. a. b. c. d. 0 1 50 100 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. At a node, the probability of finding an electron is ___ %. a. b. c. d. 0 1 50 100 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The electron configuration of a carbon atom is a. b. c. d. [He]2s22p6. [He]2s22p4. [He]2s22p2. [He]2s2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The electron configuration of a carbon atom is a. b. c. d. [He]2s22p6. [He]2s22p4. [He]2s22p2. [He]2s2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The electron configuration of a germanium atom is a. b. c. d. [Ar]4s24p2. [Ar]4s23d104p2. [Kr]4s23d104p2. [Kr]4s23d104p2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The electron configuration of a germanium atom is a. b. c. d. [Ar]4s24p2. [Ar]4s23d104p2. [Kr]4s23d104p2. [Kr]4s23d104p2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The electron configuration of a copper atom is a. b. c. d. [Ar]4s23d9. [Ar]4s13d10. [Ar]4s23d10. [Ar]4s23d7. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The electron configuration of a copper atom is a. b. c. d. [Ar]4s23d9. [Ar]4s13d10. [Ar]4s23d10. [Ar]4s23d7. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The valence electron configuration of elements in column 6A(16) of the Periodic Table is a. b. c. d. np6. ns0np6. ns2np4. impossible to predict because each element is unique. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The valence electron configuration of elements in column 6A(16) of the Periodic Table is a. b. c. d. np6. ns0np6. ns2np4. impossible to predict because each element is unique. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.