Download World History - Whitesboro Central School

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Protectorate General to Pacify the West wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
World History: Connection to Today, Modern Era
Review 2, Section
Chapter 4
Empires of the Ancient World
And Classical Civilizations
Review 2, Section 1
Empires of India and China (600 B.C.-A.D. 550)
• In Ancient India, two major religions developed-Hinduism and Buddhism.
• Under the Maurya and Gupta empires, India grew
into a center of trade and made cultural
achievements.
• Shi Huangdi united all of China. Under the Han rulers
who followed Shi Huangdi, Han Chinese civilization
made huge advances in many areas.
Review 2, Section 1
Hinduism
Hinduism grew out of many varied beliefs of different peoples who settled
in India. It has many gods and goddesses and many forms of worship.
Despite this diversity, all Hindus share certain basic beliefs:
•
•
•
•
•
All the universe is part of the unchanging, all-powerful spiritual
force called brahman.
The ultimate goal of existence is to achieve moksha, or union
with brahman.
To achieve moksha, people must free themselves from selfish
desires and satisfy one’s duties (DHARMA).
One must obey the law of KARMA.
Reincarnation allows people to continue working toward
moksha through several lifetimes.
The Teachings of the Buddha
Review 2, Section 1
Originally known as Siddhartha Gautama
•
Follow the Four Noble Truths!
•
The only cure for suffering is to follow the Eightfold Path
meaning right speech, right thought, right action, etc.
•
A middle road between a life devoted to pleasure and a life of
harsh self-denial is best.
•
It is important to live a moral life and enlightenment is achieved
through meditation.
•
The ultimate goal is nirvana, union with the universe and
release from the cycle of rebirth.
Review 2, Section 1
The Maurya Empire
Maurya rulers created a strong central government. These
rulers
• supervised the building of roads and harbors.
• collected taxes and managed state-owned
factories.
• created royal courts.
• King Asoka made quite an impact on India first as
a conqueror and then spreading Buddhism. His
laws were posted on rock pillars known as “rock
edicts” and scattered around the cities.
Powerful Empires of India
Review 2, Section
The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties
Most of India was ruled by Rajahs and fought over by rival kingdoms,
but in 321 BC and 320 AD TWO empires unified much of India!
Maurya Dynasty 321 -185 BC
Described by Megasthenes (Greek Ambassador) as
impressive. Asoka is its most notable ruler. He adopted
Buddhism, sent out missionaries (to spread it) and erected
“Rock Edicts” or royal sayings to inspire his subjects.
* 500 years passed without unification. War and invasion was common.
Gupta Dynasty 320 – 540 AD
Described by Faxian (visiting Chinese Buddhist monk) as
very advanced and mild rulers. Agricultural and craftsman
prosperity led to a Golden Age. Monasteries were also
universities where extreme learning took place. Music,
painting, sculpture, dance, flourished.
Review 2, Section 1
The Golden Age of the Guptas
LEARNING
Scholars taught many
subjects at Hindu and
Buddhist schools.
ARCHITECTURE
Builders designed
magnificent stone
temples and domeshaped shrines called
stupas.
MEDICINE
MATHEMATICS
Doctors treated illnesses
with herbs, performed
surgery, set broken
bones, and vaccinated
against smallpox.
Mathematicians invented
system of numbers we
use today and developed
decimal system and
concept of zero.
CARVING AND PAINTING
LITERATURE
Artists painted murals, or
wall paintings and
created carvings telling
the story of the life of the
Buddha.
Writers collected and
recorded fables and folk
tales.
Kalidasa wrote classical
plays.
Example: Shakuntala
Review 2, Section 1
The Caste System and Daily Life
Caste rules governed every aspect of life – where people lived,
what they ate, how they dressed, and what work they did.
Life for the lowest ranking caste, the “Untouchables,” was harsh
and restricted.
People knew that they could not change their status in this life.
However, they believed that they could reach a higher state in a
future life by fulfilling the duties of their present caste.
Each caste had its own leaders and its own occupation, and
caste members cooperated to help one another.
Review 2, Section 1
Family Life
The ideal was the joint family, in which extended
family all lived under one roof.
The family was patriarchal. The father or oldest
male had absolute authority.
Family wishes came before individual wishes.
Early on, children learned family duties, such as
obedience of caste rules.
Parents had a duty to arrange good marriages for
their children, based on caste and family interests.
The status and freedom of women decreased over
time. A woman’s duties were to marry, obey her
husband, and raise children. Extreme case: “Sati”
Review 2, Section 1
Village Life
ECONOMICS
Villages were self-sufficient,
producing most of the food
and goods needed.
Sometimes villagers traded
at regional markets.
POLITICS
Each village ran its own
affairs, facing little
interference as long as it
paid its share of taxes. A
village headman and
“council of elders” made
decisions.
Review 2, Section 1
Teachings of Confucius
Confucius developed a philosophy, or system of ideas, that was
concerned with world goals, especially how to ensure social
order and good government. His ideas included:
• Harmony results when people accept their place in society. He
put forth the “Five Relationships”. Ex. Parent to Child
• Everyone has duties and responsibilities. Filial piety, or
respect for parents, is the most important duty.
• A ruler has the responsibility to provide good government. In
return, the people would be respectful and loyal subjects.
• Government leaders and officials should be well educated.
Review 2, Section 1
Legalism versus Daoism
Legalism and Daoism promoted very different views of
government.
LEGALISM
DAOISM
The only way to achieve
Government is unnatural
order is to pass strict laws
and is the cause of
and impose harsh
punishments on
many problems.
lawbreakers.
The ruler alone possesses
power.
Qin Dynasty’s Method
People by nature are evil.
“The best government is
the one that governs the
least.” Laozi/Lao-tzu
Follow the “way” = “Dao”
Natural way or least
resistance.
Review 2, Section 1
Buddhism in China
Buddhism became popular among the Chinese,
especially in times of crisis. It was appealing
because it
• promised an escape from suffering.
• offered hope of eternal happiness.
• presented Buddha as a compassionate,
merciful god.
• taught that anyone could gain salvation
through prayer, good works, and devotion.
Review 2, Section 1
How did Shi Huangdi unite China?
•
He replaced feudal states with military districts governed
by loyal officials.
•
•
He sent spies to report on local officials.
He forced noble families to live in his capital so he could
monitor them.
• He jailed, tortured, and killed those who opposed
his rule.
• He had all books of philosophy and literature burned.
•
•
•
He standardized weights and measures.
He created uniformity in Chinese writing.
He strengthened the transportation system.
• He ordered the building of the Great Wall.
Review 2, Section 1
The Han Rulers Strengthen China!
ECONOMY
1. They improved canals
and roads.
GOVERNMENT
They made Confucianism the
official belief of the state.
They relied on well-educated
scholars to run the government.
2. They set up granaries
across the empire.
They used a civil service exam
3. They imposed government to find the most qualified officials.
monopoly on iron and salt.
4. They opened up the Silk
Road, a trade route linking
China and the West.
Review 2, Section 1
The Han Golden Age
“The People of Han.”
SCIENCE
MEDICINE
Wrote texts on chemistry, zoology,
and botany.
Measured movements of stars and
planets.
Invented seismograph to measure
earthquakes.
Diagnosed diseases.
Used herbal remedies and other drugs
for treatments.
Developed anesthetics.
Explored uses of acupuncture.
TECHNOLOGY
THE ARTS
Made paper out of wood pulp.
Pioneered advanced methods of
shipbuilding.
Invented the rudder, fishing reels,
wheelbarrows, and suspension
bridges.
Built grand temples and palaces.
Produced jade and ivory carvings and
ceramic figures.
Improved bronze working and silk
making techniques.