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YEAR 9 HISTORY REVISION Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman earned the name “Black Moses” because like the Moses in the Bible who led Jews out of slavery in Egypt, she lead many of her fellow Blacks out of slavery in the southern United States to freedom in Canada. Harriet Tubman was born a slave in Maryland in 1820. Her ancestors had been captured in Africa and sold as slaves in America. Unlike slaves in earlier times, the Africans were regarded as less than human. They were cattle or property in the same sense as farm animals and they were often treated the same: fed scraps, housed in shacks, and worked under the whip. In 1849 Harriet Tubman decided to escape this fate by riding the “Underground Railroad” north to freedom. This escape route was not literally underground nor was it a railroad. It was underground in the sense that it was a secret operation run by courageous people, both Black and White, who were opposed to slavery. It was a railroad in the sense that it used railroad code words like “passengers” for the fugitives and “stations” for the safe houses where the fugitives hid from slave owners who hunted them. “Conductors” were those who led the slaves from one “station” to another like the Canadian doctor Alexander Milton Ross. He used his bird-watching hobby as a cover while visiting the plantations to tell the slaves how best to travel to Canada. From 1793 until 1861, a thousand Blacks or AfricanAmericans made it to freedom in the northern American Free states and to Canada through this underground network. When Harriet Tubman escaped on the Underground Railroad, she travelled by night for a week before reaching Pennsylvania, a northern state, and freedom. A year later she became a conductor herself and made 19 trips before 1850, risking capture and losing that freedom. She would use the North Star to guide her on clear nights; on cloudy nights she would feel for the moss growing on the north side of trees. Sometimes she and the runaway slaves would hide in a “station”, sometimes in chimneys, barns, haystacks, and root cellars. They also used disguises when travelling in the South and fake passes in the Northern states. To protect her passengers, the Black Moses could be ruthless. She thought that if a slave gave up the journey, he should be shot. An interviewer asked if she would really do that. “Yes,” she replied, “if he was weak enough to give out, he’d be weak enough to betray us all, and all who helped us; and do you think I’d let so many die just for one coward man.” Despite ever increasing risks, Tubman continued to help others escape. She made 11 more trips south, leading some 300 people into Canada, including her elderly parents and three brothers. At one point, slave owners offered $40,000 for her capture, dead or alive. Harriet Tubman continued… During the American Civil War between the Northern States of America (Union) and the Southern States (confederate), Harriet Tubman left Canada and joined the Union Army to serve as a nurse, scout, and spy. By 1863 she had organised her own band of spies chosen from former slaves who knew the countryside and could guide the Union forces. In a raid at the Combahee River in South Carolina, these spies told the Union soldiers how to avoid mines set in the river. Led by Tubman, former slaves also piloted gunboats down the river and burned crops and buildings. They freed more than 750 slaves. Harriet Tubman was given credit for planning the raid, becoming the first and only woman in American history to lead a military attack. The North won the war in 1865 and Tubman stayed to live in the United States as a free woman. However, many other Blacks stayed in Canada to contribute to their new homeland. Tubman retired in New York state and founded a home for the aged. She died in 1913. The Underground Railroad resulted in the immigration of 40 to 60,000 people at a time when the population of the Canada's was about 2.5 million. Tubman herself rescued 100s of slaves to Canada People risked their own lives to save others. It showed the moral conscience of humans and that not all believed that slavery was right. Women and the Vote The Victorian Times - The UK is the most powerful country in the world and has managed to take over many other countries with their British Empire. Millions across the world look to Britain as an example. There was an introduction of technology! The first kinds of cars, tractors, steam ships, steam trains and household appliances. People wore very smart clothes. Men had suits with neckties and long coats and women had a lot of focus on the shape of their bodies! Lots of new houses were being built to deal with the booming population. Women during the Victorian era were meant to be a servant for their man, they did not have equal rights. They would want more equality because they believed they should have the same rights as men. Reasons why women wanted the vote: • When Queen Victoria came to the throne in 1837 women thought she would introduce change and men would see a woman could in charge. Instead she introduced no change and willingly allowed male advisors to tell her what to do. • Women did not have the same opportunities as men, and had many barriers in their way for their education or work. Typically they weren't allowed to be doctors or any other educated professional unless it was a teacher or nurse. • No laws could legally be changed without an Act of Parliament, which was voted upon by MPs. If women wanted any change then they needed to be able to vote for MPs who would support women's rights. • Everything women did to argue for their equality was disagreed with by men. If they said they paid taxes, men claimed it wasn't as though they were expected to go to war! If women did acts to get attention, men said if they were going to be dangerous they didn't deserve the vote! • Queen Victoria died in 1901. The Suffragettes thought that without a woman in some position of power in Britain they would have a lesser chance of success. Fighting for their Rights Women's Social and Political Union Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928) became involved in women's suffrage in 1880. She was a founding member of the WSPU in 1903 and led it until it disbanded in 1918. Under her leadership the WSPU was a highly organised group and like other members she was imprisoned and went on hunger strike protests. WSPU members were determined to obtain the right to vote for women by any means and campaigned tirelessly and sometimes violently to achieve this aim. They felt that the impact of peaceful tactics seemed to have been exhausted and a different, more radical approach was needed. The WSPU undertook more violent acts, including attacks on property and law-breaking, which resulted in imprisonment and hunger strikes. These tactics attracted a great deal of attention to the campaign for votes for women. Ways to win the Vote • Propaganda posters advertising the equality women want • • • • • • • Chains and buckles for 5 women to chain themselves to railings Bomb-making materials Banners and placards for women to hold in parades An office for the Suffragettes to hold meetings Bail money (to pay for Suffragettes to be released from prison) Publicity for 10 women to be on hunger strikes Paint to graffiti buildings • A large parade and carnival so speeches could be made • Leaflets to hand out to politicians Emily Davison Mystery When she did her practices she also practiced getting out of the way. She never told anyone what she was going to do at the 1913 Derby- not even her mother, to whom she was very close She was not looking at the horses as they turned the corner- she was looking at the King’s box opposite the track She was a very close friend of the Pankhursts (the leaders of the suffragettes movement) but didn’t tell them what she was planning She had arranged to meet a friend for lunch the day after the race She practiced by getting a friend to run at her as fast as possible whilst she jumped out with the placard She bought a return train ticket to the 1913 Derby She had a homemade placard saying “Equal Rights for Women” which she had hidden under her jacket She was well educated with a first class degree from Oxford University She had previously gone on hunger strike and thrown herself down an iron staircase whilst in prison as a Suffragette War brings a truce By 1914 women had still not won the right to vote. When the war broke out, the Pankhurst's called off their campaign and asked supporters to help with the war effort. With more men leaving to became soldiers, women got the chance to do jobs they'd never done before. They became bus drivers, milk deliverers, police officers and car mechanics. thousands of women worked in munitions factories too. By the end of the war, many people felt women had earned the right to vote. In 1918 Parliament changed the voting laws to allow women over the age of 30 to vote. Alliances in Europe 1.Triple Alliance: This alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy was signed in 1882. The Triple Alliance formed a central block of countries across Europe, separating France from Russia. It was a defensive alliance and all three powers promised to fight if they were attacked by any other two powers. 3.Britain and Splendid Isolation: At the end of the 19th Century, Britain played little part in events in Europe. It was quite happy to remain isolated from any of the alliances in Europe as long as no single power gained complete control. This isolation, because it was a deliberate policy on the part of Britain, became known as ‘splendid isolation’. It depended on the strength of the British Navy. Britain was an island and needed a strong navy for protection and to keep open trade and communications with its empire, which was the largest in the world. Most of Britain’s problems had involved clashes with France and Russia in the colonies. Britain began to realise that the Franco-Russian Alliance could be directed against it. Britain’s natural ally was Germany: it was not a colonial power and was not therefore seen as a rival to Britain. Moreover, the royal families of the two countries were related. One of the themes of the years 1900 to 1914 is how Germany, from being Britain’s most likely ally, became its enemy in the First World War. 2.The Franco- Russian Alliance: After its defeat by Prussia in 1870, France was forced to sign the Treaty of Frankfurt in 1871, in which it lost the provinces of Alsace and Lorrain to Germany and was forced to pay Germany a sum of 5 billion francs (£200 million) in war debts. The French hatred of Germany and their wish for revenge dominated their foreign policy in the years leading up to the First World War. However, they could not get revenge on their own. After Bismarck was dismissed by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890, France was able to sign an agreement with Russia in 1893. The terms of the alliance were defensive. Both powers agreed to join the other in war if either of them was attacked by Germany or Austria-Hungary. 4.Anglo-Japanese Alliance - In 1902 Britain and Japan signed an alliance in which they promised to help each other if one of them was attacked by more than one power. This meant that splendid isolation was more splendid than ever. The Boer War ended without any European action against Britain and now Britain had an ally in the Far East to prevent Russian expansion there. Britain did not need any allies in Europe. 5.The Entente Cordiale - Britain was becoming worried by the size of the German naval fleet. It was not strong enough to challenge Britain, but it could hold the balance of power in any war between Britain and France or Britain and Russia. So, in 1902 Britain put its navy on the ‘three-power standard’. This meant that it had to be as large as the next three largest fleets in the world combined. Germany had made it clear that it did not want to ally with either Britain or France, so Britain and France looked to sorting out the problems between them. In 1903-04 the two countries signed the Entente Cordiale (friendly agreement). In this, France allowed Britain to go ahead with reforms in Egypt and Britain promised not to oppose any French action in Morocco. The Entente Cordiale was an agreement, not an alliance. Britain had no intention of becoming involved in European affairs. Its colonial problems in Egypt had been solved, its ally Japan was defeating Russia in the Far East and its navy had reached the three power standard. Germany did not see it this way. It thought that Britain had abandoned isolation and joined France. Germany seemed intent on challenging the Entente Cordiale. Assassination Reasons for Joining Up • Peer Pressure • Fear of being called a coward • Loving your country (Patriotic) • Propaganda • Ignorance • Fighting for a ‘just’ cause Propaganda is the government’s way of persuading the general public to do something. It was used greatly by the government during the First World War.