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Transcript
Medical Science: History and
Practice
Lesson 1:
The History of Medicine
Upon completion of this lesson, students
should be able to …


Discuss the contributions of early medicine to
healthcare.
Discuss medical contributors of the
eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth
centuries.


Identify and discuss the role women played in
the history of medicine.
Discuss modern medicine and the future of
medicine.
 Shamans
 Witch
doctors
 Sorcerers
Used by Babylonian physicians in 3000
BC
 Named after Hammurabi, an early king
of Babylon
 Laws relate to the practice of medicine
 If laws were broken, severe penalties
were sustained
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Egyptians:
◦ Lists of remedies
◦ Surgical treatments of wounds and injuries
◦ Records for sanitation

Jewish Community:
◦ Personal hygiene practices
◦ Sanitation and other public health issues
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Greeks:
◦ Use of nonpoisonous snakes to treat wounds
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Indian:
◦ Herbal medical remedies as early as 800 BC

Chinese:
◦ Writings about human blood pulses around 250 BC

Japanese and Chinese:
◦ Practice of acupuncture
1.
What medicinal remedies were
developed in ancient civilizations
and are still being used today?
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Opium derivates used in medication
Nitroglycerin to treat heart patients
Digitalis from the foxglove plant to regulate
and strengthen the heartbeat
Sulfur and cayenne pepper to stop bleeding
Chamomile and licorice to aid digestion
Cranberry to treat urinary tract infections
Medieval period
 Time of little or no progress in
medical practices
 Time of many epidemics
 Medical testing was mostly oral
 Surgeons only treated the wealthy;
others were treated by the local barber

1.
2.
Compare and contrast the Classical version
and the Modern version of the Hippocratic
Oath.
Prepare to discuss and share

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Part of the writings of Hippocrates
Serves as a widely used ethical guide for
physicians
Oath includes the physician’s pledge to:
◦
◦
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work for the good of the patient
do the patient no harm
prescribe no deadly drugs
give no advice that could cause death
keep confidential medical information
regarding the patient
1.
What advancements in medicine that
impacted how patients were treated,
occurred during the nineteenth century?

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Improved knowledge of the human body
through accurate documentation
Use of sophisticated microscopes
Use of injection materials
Use of instruments such as the
ophthalmoscope
Discovery of the cell
Discovery that certain diseases and
wound infections were caused by
microorganisms
1.
How has medicine advanced from the
nineteenth century to the twentieth century?
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Death rates from diseases such as
tuberculosis and diphtheria dropped
dramatically
Overall mortality rates decreased
New emphasis placed on morbidity rates
Chemotherapy and the specialty of
oncology were developed
Development of immunology
Progress in endocrinology
Advancements in nutrition
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The introduction of antibiotics
First example of using chemicals to treat
infections
Discovered by Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928
Fleming and two other scientists won the
Nobel Prize for their work with penicillin

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Occurred due to the advancements in the
study of immunology
Discovered in the 1950s
Developed by:
◦ Dr. Jonas Salk (1914-1996)
◦ Dr. Albert Sabin (1906-1993)

First vaccines included:
◦ Typhoid, tetanus, diphtheria, tuberculosis, yellow
fever, influenza, and measles

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1954
1960
1962
1967
1978
1984
1997
2001
2001
–
–
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–
–
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First successful kidney transplant
Invention of the heart pump
Reattachment of limbs
First heart transplant
First test-tube baby
Discovery of HIV as the cause of AIDS
Cloning of first sheep
Placement of an implantable heart
Completion of human genome project
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Increased life expectancy rates
Improved communication techniques
affecting the way patients will be treated
Robotics used in surgery
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Cure for AIDS
Vaccine to prevent HIV
Cloning organs to overcome shortage of
donors
Better treatment and outcomes for mental
illness
Cure for heart disease, cancer, and obesity
Methods to slow aging
Regeneration of brain and nerve cells to
overcome paralysis
Development of antibiotics that do not allow
bacteria to develop a resistant strain
Upon completion of this lesson, students should be
able to …




Describe the difference between an internship and
a residency in the training of physicians.
State which type of medical practice is addressed
under the medical and surgical specialties.
Discuss ten allied health fields and the educational
requirements for each of them.
Discuss the current trends in health care that are
driving changes in medical practice.

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Designates a person who holds a doctoral
degree
Physicians are MDs or DOs
Practicing medicine requires a minimum of 910 years of education and training
◦ Four-year college degree in premedical studies
◦ Four years of medical school
◦ 2-6 year internship depending on specialty area

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Indicates who must be licensed to perform
certain procedures
Establishes the requirements for licensure
Denotes duties associated with the license
Sets grounds on which a license can be
revoked
Designates reports that must be made to the
government
Specifies the penalties for practicing without
a valid license

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Unprofessional
conduct
Commission of a
crime
Personal
incapacity to
perform one’s
duties
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Largest industry
Provides about 12.9 million jobs
Costs increasing faster than cost of living
About 14% of gross national product spent on
health care
Heath care costs per year equal to about 1.5
trillion dollars
Costs of employer-sponsored health care
continues to increase
Only nation that does not provide some
type of basic health care for all citizens
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Expensive technological advances
Physician specialization
Breakdown of physician-patient
relationships leading to the increase of
lawsuits
Higher costs of medications
Older population needing more services
Longer life expectancy
Informed consumers demanding more tests
and options

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More uninsured rely on the emergency
room for primary care
Uninsured having less or no access to
preventive care leading to the need for
treating more advanced illnesses or
ailments
Social conditions such as:
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◦
Homelessness
Substance abuse
Poverty
Child abuse

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Allergy and immunology
Anesthesiology
Bariatrics
Video on Bariatrics
Cardiology
Dermatology
Endocrinology

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Emergency Medicine
Family Practice
Gastroenterology
Geriatric Medicine
Hematology
Oncology
Primary Medicine (Internal Medicine)
Neurology
Nephrology

Obstetrician
◦ Provides pre-natal care
up through the
postpartum period

Gynecologist
◦ Provides
medical/surgical
treatment of
diseases/disorders of
the female reproductive
system
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Ophthalmology
Orthopedics

Otorhinolaryngology
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Terms:
◦ Otology – study of the ear
◦ Rhinology – study of the nose
◦ Laryngology – study of the throat
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Pathology
Pediatrics
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Physical and/or rehabilitative medicine
Sports medicine
Psychiatry
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Pulmonology
Radiology
Rheumatology
Urology
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Surgeons
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Hospitals
Outpatient surgical centers
Urgent care centers
Nursing homes
Long-term-care institutions
Hospice

Certification
◦ Shows that an individual has met the
educational/experience standards in their profession

Registration
◦ Indicates that an individual is registered with a
specific organization that has determined the person
is qualified to perform duties in their profession

Licensure
◦ Provides proof that the individual has been authorized
by a government agency to perform work in their
profession
5. Professional: 4-year degree, advanced
degree and clinical training, Bachelor (BA, BS),
Master or Doctorate
4. Technologist: 4-year college program, Bachelor
(BA, BS)
3. Technician: 2-year community college or vocational
program, Associate’s degree (AS)
2. Assistant: Up to 1-year classroom and clinical
preparation, diploma
1. Aide: On-the-job training, high school
diploma
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Completed a training program and taken a state
examination
Assists nurses in nursing homes, hospitals, and
other health care facilities
Patient care includes bed baths, vital signs,
feeding, and ambulation
Also called a nurse’s aid or orderly
PCT - patient care technician, may have a CNA or
medical assisting background and can perform
technical tasks (drawing blood, ECGs)
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Performs some of the same, but not all,
clinical nursing tasks of a registered nurse
(No IVP or IVPB meds)
Must have graduated from a recognized
one-year program (CTE or CC)
Must be licensed by the State Board
(requires NCLEX LPN)
In some states, LPN is known as LVN
(licensed vocational nurse)
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Provide hands-on patient care
Employed in hospitals, physicians’ offices,
industry, governmental agencies, ambulatory
care units, emergency services, and schools
Work ranges from direct patient care, to
teaching and supervising others, performing
research, and managing agencies
Two-year or four-year program (ASN or BSN)
Licensed after passing the National Council
Licensure Examination (NCLEX)
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RN with additional
training
Provide basic care
including diagnosing
and prescribing
medications and
treatments
Masters-degree,
trained individual
(Soon to change to
Doctorate)
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Field emerged in 1970s
Assists the physician in the primary care of
patients (must work with a Doctor)
Can prescribe medications in nearly all
states
Two-years education after a bachelor’s
degree
Work and/or internship experience
Pass an accreditation examination
Government agency
 Division of the Department of Health
and Human Services (DHHS)
 Safeguard public health by preventing
and controlling disease
 Acts as a resource

 http://www.cdc.gov/