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10th Grade Social Studies – TAKS Review
1776 - Declaration of Independence (listed grievances)
1787 - United States Constitution (replaced articles of confederation)
1803 - Louisiana Purchase (doubled the size of the U.S.)
1861-1865 - Civil War (established the supremacy of the federal government)
Thomas Jefferson – Primary author of the Declaration of Independence
George Washington – Commander in Chief of the Continental Army
Thomas Payne – Wrote “Common Sense” a pamphlet supporting independence
Benjamin Franklin – Founding Father who helped secure French help
American Revolution
 Lexington & Concord - first battles
 Saratoga - turning point, Colonists victory assured French support
 Yorktown - last battle, British surrendered
 Treaty of Paris - officially recognized the U.S. as an independent country
World History
 Agricultural Revolution - switch from hunting and gathering to farming and herding,
allowed civilizations (cities) to develop
 Renaissance/Enlightenment - rebirth/awakening – growth and trade, new philosophy
and exchange of ideas, encouraged science and rational thought
 Industrial Revolution – switch from agriculture (farming) to industrial production, led to
the growth of cities and global trade
 Democratic Revolution – political shift toward democratic government
 World Wars – end of many European monarchies, established many
communist/socialist republics, led to many technologies (radar, jet aircraft, rockets,
antibiotics, nuclear weapons
 Cold War – U.S. and Soviet Union became world superpowers, had opposing political
and economic systems, each side tried to increase its global influence and undermine
the power of the other, both sides avoided open warfare
Economic Systems
Traditional – simple activities like farming, hunting & gathering; based on custom and
tradition; simple technologies like horses and plows, found in less developed areas like Africa,
Asia, and South America
Command – government owns and controls economic resources, no profit motive or business
competition, people have little economic freedom, found in the former Soviet Union, Cuba, and
North Korea
Market (Capitalist) – individuals own and control economic resources, businesses compete
with each other and people are motivated by the desire for profit, individuals have significant
economic freedom, found in the United States and Japan
Methods of Production
Subsistence Agriculture – production of almost all the things the family needs with little or
nothing left over for trade, usually associated with traditional economies
Market-oriented Agriculture – production of farm goods for sale instead of home use,
associated with market and command economies
Cottage Industry – goods produced in people’s homes using simple equipment and
technology, associated with traditional economies
Commercial Industry – large-scale production of goods in factories with complex machines
and technology, often involves a large number of workers, associated with market and
command economies
Fundamental Principles of American Government (structure & function)
Colonists came to the Americas looking for freedom (especially religious and economic
Documents that help us understand American government better are the Declaration of
Independence (a list of grievances/complaints), the Articles of Confederation (the original
government structure that had to be changed because its federal government was too weak),
the Federalist Papers (a series of pamphlets encouraging people to support the ideas of
federalism and having a strong federal government), the U.S. Constitution (our current
government structure), and the Bill of Rights (the first 10 amendments to the U.S.
Constitution that guarantee individual rights to Americans)
Enlightenment – “the awakening” – a philosophical movement that encouraged the use of
reason to make government and society better. Ideas of free speech and representative
government influenced American leaders before and after the American Revolution. Some
ideas come from John Locke who supported natural (unalienable) rights and the theory of
social contract (government is created by people in order to protect their natural rights)
Popular Sovereignty – people rule and have the final authority in everything
Republicanism – people elect representatives to create and enforce laws
Limited government – the constitution (people) grant the government powers but also place
limits on those powers
Federalism – division of power between the national and state governments
Separation of Powers – the federal government is divided into 3 branches (legislative,
executive, and judicial) so that the peoples’ rights are protected
Checks and Balances – each branch of the federal government has some powers that restrict
the actions of the other branches so that no branch can become more powerful
Individual Rights (natural/unalienable) – these are valued in American government and are
protected by the constitution and bill of rights
Bill of Rights
1 – freedom of press, religion, assembly, and the right to petition the government
2 – the right to bear arms
3 – civilians will not be forced to house soldiers
4 – people are protected from unreasonable search and seizure
5 – people have the right to know why they have been arrested and they do not have to testify
against themselves
6 – right to a speedy and public jury trial
7 – jury trials for civil cases involving large amounts of money
8 – protection from excessive bail and cruel & unusual punishment
9 – rights not listed in the Constitution are not automatically denied to the people
10 – people and the states keep powers that are not specifically given to the federal
The Nullification Crisis – the United States imposed a tariff (import tax) on manufactured
goods in 1832, the tariff raised prices encouraging people to buy American goods. This was
good for Northeastern manufacturers, but bad for southerners who did not own many factories.
They felt angry and betrayed. South Carolina announced that they would not obey laws that
they didn’t agree with and would nullify (refuse to accept/follow) the federal tariff. They also
threatened to secede from the Union. The president threatened to use military force to prevent
them from seceding. They eventually reached a compromise, however; this issue is important
because it was the first big challenge to the federal government’s authority
The Civil War – Controversy over the division of power between federal and state
governments continued through 1860. Eventually, the states began to argue about slavery
and many southern states seceded leading to a civil war. The north won the war and slavery
was later abolished in the United States. This war is significant because it established that the
federal government would have supremacy over the state governments
Reconstruction Amendments – southern states were allowed to rejoin the Union only after
agreeing to these amendments that improved the rights of African Americans
o 13th Amendment – abolished (ended and outlawed) slavery in the United States
o 14th Amendment – all persons (former slaves / African Americans) born in the United
States are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
o 15th Amendment - citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of “race, color,
or previous condition of servitude” (African American males have the right to vote)
Cultural (Spatial) Diffusion
The process of people, culture, languages, technology, things, ideas, diseases etc… spreading
through different geographical places
The most common examples of spatial diffusion are:
o The Columbian Exchange
o The Bubonic (Black) Plague
Maps / Graphs / Charts
Look at the key or labels
Look at the question and answer choices
Look back at the map/graph/chart and try to eliminate choices that don’t make
6. Choose the answer that seems the most correct
7. Double check (ask yourself “can I see this in the information provided”)
Determining level of development and standard of living
o The following statistical data can help determine a country’s level of development and
standard of living – remember that the greater the level of development usually the
better the standard of living
o Gross Domestic Product
o Gross National Product
o Per Capita Income
o Population Growth
o Literacy Rate
o Life Expectancy