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Chapter 3
Drug Specific Information
Drugs on the Street Where You Live
Chapter Objectives



Define and apply the following terms:
physical dependence, withdrawal,
psychological dependence, routes of
administration, set and setting, tolerance,
cross-tolerance, synergism, antagonism.
Define and outline the various aspects of the
behavioral definition of addiction.
Explain the difference between psychoactive
and nonpsychoactive drugs.
Chapter Objectives





Outline some updated information on crystal
methamphetamine, Rohypnol, LSD, heroin,
marijuana, inhalants, and MDMA (Ecstasy).
Outline the basic classification system of
drugs.
Classify the drugs in the narcotic analgesics
category.
Discuss the central nervous system
depressants.
Classify the central nervous system
stimulants.
Chapter Objectives





Classify the drugs in the hallucinogens
category.
Classify the drugs in the cannabis sativa
category.
Classify the various inhalants and their
available forms.
Explain the problems in classifying
phencyclidine.
Explain the various uses of drugs in sports
and athletics.
Drugs in Our Society

Drug revolution of the 60s and 70s
revolted against
– Protestant work ethic
– moral and sexual values
– societal values in general

Symbolized the conflict in Vietnam
and the stress of the draft.
Drugs in Our Society

In the 1980s, cocaine use had a major impact
through the deaths of media personalities and
on the middle- to upper-class population.
 In the late 1980s to early 1990s, designer drugs
came on the scene.
–
–
–
–
–
“ice”
methamphetamines
Rohypnol
ecstasy
purer heroin
Classification of Drugs

Non Psychoactive Drugs
– Substances that do not directly affect
the brain when taken in normal doses .
• vitamins
• antibiotics
• topical skin preparations
Psychoactive Drugs

Substances that affect brain functions, mood, and
behavior and are subdivided primarily on the basis
of physiological and psychological effects.
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Narcotic analgesics
central nervous system depressants
central nervous system stimulants
hallucinogens
cannabis sativa: marijuana and hashish
inhalants: volatile solvents
phencyclidine (PCP)
Narcotic Analgesics
“Narcotic” comes from the Greek term
“narcosis”, which means “to numb”.
 Narcotic analgesics come from the poppy
plant. These include:
– morphine
– codeine
– heroin
 “Narcotic” has been inappropriately
applied to marijuana, cocaine, and
hallucinogens as an emotional-laden
moral response.

Central Nervous System Depressants

Drugs that are used as sedatives or
hypnotics.
– alcohol
– barbiturates
– tranquilizers
Alcohol

Acts as a
depressant on the
central nervous
system.
 Is the most widely
used psychoactive
drug known (other
than tobacco
products).

Has major effects
on the brain,
peripheral nerves,
GI tract, heart and
blood vessels, and
the lungs.
 Time is the only
method of
“sobering-up”.
Barbiturates

Prescribed to induce
sleep and relax the
nervous system.
 Affect areas of the
brain that are related
to sleep more than
other sedative
hypnotics.
 Usually taken orally
and are readily
absorbed.

Some
nonbarbiturates have
a barbiturate-like
action.
– chloral hydrate
– methaqualone
– flurazapame
(Dalmane)
– glutethimide
(Doriden)
– ethchlorvynol
(Placidyl)
CNS Stimulants - Tranquilizers

Minor tranquilizers
act primarily as
antianxiety agents.
 Major tranquilizers
act primarily as
antipsychotic
agents.
 Can be taken orally
or as an injectable.

There is a crosstolerance and high
addiction potential to
minor tranquilizers by
about 5% of the
population - those
people are alcoholics
and addicts of other
drugs.
Amphetamines

Prescribed primarily
for narcolepsy,
hyperkinetic
syndrome in
children, certain
mental conditions,
and short-term
weight control.
 Can be taken orally
or injected
intravenously.

Prolonged use leads
to dehydration,
weight loss, vitamin
deficiency, reduced
immune system, liver
and cardiovascular
disease,
hypertensive
disorders, and
psychiatric problems.
Cocaine


Has gained
popularity in a wide
variety of drug
forms, including
crack cocaine.
Can be inhaled,
injected or smoked
(including freebase
smoking).


Is short-acting; after
the euphoria,
psychological
depression,
nervousness,
fatigue, and
irritability set in.
Cocaine is the most
addicting drug
known today.
Tobacco

Is the most widely
abused drug.
 Single-leading
cause of
preventable death
in this country.

Diseases related to
smoking tobacco.
– heart disease
– peripheral vascular
disease
– cerebrovascular
disease
– cancer
– chronic obstructive
lung disease
Hallucinogens
“Hallucinogen” is derived from the Latin
term “hallucinari”, which means to wander
in the mind.
 Defined as:
– psychedelic

• alters consciousness
– psychotomimetic
• mimics psychosis
– psychotogenic
• produces psychosis
LSD

Is the most potent
drug by weight, and
is the most
thoroughly
researched.
 Is often impregnated
in sugar pills, blotter
paper, or small
gelatin squares for
ingestion.

Can produce
profound effects on
thinking, selfawareness, and
emotions.
 Physical dependence
is unlikely, however
psychological
dependence is
common in long-term
users.
Cannabis Sativa (Marijuana)

Cannabis refers to
any product of the
plant Canabis sativa.
 Can be smoked in
hand-rolled
cigarettes or joints.
Higher-potency
marijuana is usually
smoked in a water
pipe.

Effects include
exhilaration,
relaxation, heart rate
increase,
drowsiness, dry
mouth and throat,
bloodshot eyes,
impaired short-term
memory, altered
states of time and
space, and dilated
pupils.
Inhalants


Various solvents, aerosols, and other gases are
inhaled to get high.
Available forms of inhalants include:
– glue, model cement, fingernail polish removers,
various cosmetics, cleaning solvents, gasoline,
paint, paint thinner, lighter fluids, antifreeze,
aerosol cans, white correction fluid.

Effects include:
– a feeling of well-being, reduction of inhibitions,
dizziness, illusions, giddiness, time and space
distortions, feeling of floating, and an elevated mood.
Inhalants

Adverse effects include:
– confusion, drunkenness, slurred speech,
numbness, runny nose, tears, headache,
incoordination, nausea, vomiting, confusion,
panic, irritation, tension, hyperactivity,
aggressiveness, drowsiness, stupor,
respiratory depression, unconsciousness,
difficulty breathing, ulcers around mouth and
nose, weight loss, nutritional disorders, death.
Phencyclidine (PCP)



Cannot be properly classified as a hallucinogen,
stimulant, or a depressant, causing it to be listed in
a separate drug category.
Can be smoked or ingested, and occasionally is
injectable.
Effects include:
– euphoria, auditory/visual/time disturbances, loss of
muscle control, delusions, tranquilization, inebriation,
dissociation, changes in body imagery, perceptual
distortions, feelings of apathy and estrangement,
drowsiness, inability to verbalize, difficulty thinking, poor
concentration, preoccupation with death.
Phencyclidine (PCP)


Because PCP produces a loss of feeling, accidents
causing injury are common.
High or consistent doses have led to incidents of
violence.
– Police have reported PCP users breaking out of steel
handcuffs, failing to stop an attack despite being shot
several times, or bleeding to death because of an inability
to feel the injury.

Adverse reactions may include:
– paranoia, agitation, withdrawn or isolated feeling, bizarre
delusions, increased heart rate/blood pressure, sweating,
salivation, flushing, nystagmus (jerky eye movements).
Phencyclidine (PCP)

Does not appear to be physically addictive,
although tolerance may develop.
 When smoked, users may become very
psychologically dependent.
Athletes and Drugs - Caffeine

Caffeine present in two and a half cups
of coffee may increase endurance, but
does not improve performance during
maximal short-term bursts of exercise.

Caffeine increases urine output,
causing potential implications for the
athletes’ hydration status.
Athletes and Drugs - Caffeine

Adverse effects are dose-related and may
include:
– headaches, tremors, nausea, irregular
heartbeat, restlessness, anxiety, insomnia.

Withdrawal symptoms may include:
– headaches, drowsiness, lethargy, irritability,
depression.
Athletes and Drugs - Tobacco

While the percentage of smokers among
athletes has declined, the use of chewing
tobacco remains high.
 The Surgeon General has concluded that
chewing tobacco is related to oral cancer,
gum recession, and nicotine dependence.
 Nicotine does not heighten energy or
strength!
Athletes and Drugs - Amphetamines

These drugs have an appetite-suppressing
effect attractive to athletes for whom
keeping a certain weight is critical.
–
–
–
–
jockeys
gymnasts
wrestlers
boxers
Athletes and Drugs - Amphetamines

Most people agree that amphetamines
improve alertness. However . . .

Amphetamines do NOT prevent fatigue,
but mask fatigues which can lead to
disaster!
Athletes and Drugs - Amphetamines

By diminishing pain thresholds, athletes
are allowed to continue to compete
despite injury, potentially causing more
damage.

There is an added potential for injury
to others in contact sports because
of the increase in aggressiveness
caused by amphetamine use.
Athletes and Drugs - Steroids

Androgenic steroids
– Include testosterone. Primarily develop and
maintain male sex characteristics.

Anabolic steroids
– Are synthetic derivatives of testosterone
developed in an attempt to minimize
testosterone’s androgenic or masculinizing
effects on the individual while promoting
protein synthesis and muscular growth.
Athletes and Drugs - Steroids

Major effects of steroid use:
– significant increases in strength
– increases in lean body mass
– increased ability to perform high-intensity
training sessions
Athletes and Drugs - Steroids

Adverse effects of steroid use:
– heart disease, elevated blood pressure,
reduction of high density lipoproteins that aid
in removing cholesterol, stunted growth.
– Adverse effects on men:
• liver and kidney damage, breast development, acne,
baldness, cysts, shrinking of the testicles, sterility,
reduced sex drive, headaches, nausea, dizziness.
– Adverse effects on women:
• infertility, clitoral enlargement, breast atrophy,
menstrual irregularities, male pattern baldness, voice
change.
Athletes and Drugs - Steroids

Evidence is emerging that the most
significant effect of steroid use is
psychological.
– Aggressiveness, mood swings, depression,
delusions, loss of control, continued use
despite known adverse consequences,
tolerance, withdrawal.

These effects suggest that both physical
and psychological dependence may occur.
Athletes and Other Drugs/Alcohol



Professional athletes may seek both relief
from the pressures of athletic competition
and the accompanying lifestyle, as well as
enhancement of performance by using
alcohol or other drugs.
Alcohol/drug problems are still enabled
and/or denied at many levels of athletic
competitions.
Additional efforts are needed to resolve the
issue of alcohol/drug abuse and addiction at
all levels of athletics.