Download ANATOMY OF MAJOR ORGANS OF

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
CHAPTER 22
The Respiratory
System:
Part A
Learning Objectives
At the end of the discussion students should be
able to:




Recognize and name the major organs of the
respiratory system (ILO 1.1)
Explain the functional anatomy of Respiratory
system (ILO 1.2)
Recognize and contrast the histology of various parts
of respiratory system. (2.1)
Label the respiratory organs in the activity sheets.
(2.2)
Lecture Outline

Major organs of the respiratory system

Functional Anatomy

Anatomy of major organs:
- Nose & Nasal cavity
- Paranasal sinuses
- Pharynx
- Larynx
Respiratory System
• Major organs
• Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses
• Pharynx
• Larynx
• Trachea
• Bronchi and their branches
• Lungs and alveoli
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Over view of anatomy of respiratory system
Nasal cavity
Nostril
Oral cavity
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Carina of
trachea
Right main
(primary)
bronchus
Right lung
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Left main
(primary)
bronchus
Left lung
Diaphragm
Figure 22.1
Functional Anatomy
1. Respiratory zone: site of gas exchange
• Microscopic structures: respiratory bronchioles,
alveolar ducts, and alveoli
2. Conducting zone: conduits to gas exchange sites
• Includes all other respiratory structures
3. Respiratory muscles: diaphragm and other
muscles that promote ventilation
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
ANATOMY OF MAJOR ORGANS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
The Nose
Two regions:
1. External nose
2. Nasal cavity
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
ANATOMY OF MAJOR ORGANS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
1. External nose:
a) Root
b) Bridge
c) Dorsum nasi
d) Apex
• Philtrum: a shallow vertical groove inferior
to the apex
• Nostrils (nares): bounded laterally by the
alae
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Root and
bridge of
nose
Dorsum nasi
Ala of nose
Apex of nose
Naris (nostril)
Philtrum
(a) Surface anatomy
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.2a
ANATOMY OF MAJOR ORGANS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
External skeletal framework of nose
1. Nasal bone
2. Maxilla
3. Septal cartilages
4. Alar cartilages
5. Dense fibrous connective tissue
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
(b) External skeletal framework
Frontal bone
Nasal bone
Septal cartilage
Maxillary bone
(frontal process)
Lateral process of
septal cartilage
Minor alar cartilages
Dense fibrous
connective tissue
Major alar
cartilages
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.2b
ANATOMY OF MAJOR ORGANS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
2. Nasal cavity: In and posterior to the external
nose
• Nasal septum Divide the nose into right and left
halves
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
ANATOMY OF MAJOR ORGANS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
• Posterior nasal apertures open into the nasal
pharynx
• Roof: ethmoid and sphenoid bones
• Floor: hard and soft palates
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
ANATOMY OF MAJOR ORGANS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Vestibule: Nasal cavity superior to the nostrils
Superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae
• Protrude from the lateral walls
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cribriform plate
of ethmoid bone
Sphenoid bone
Nasal cavity
Nasal conchae
(superior, middle
and inferior)
Nasal meatuses
(superior, middle,
and inferior)
Nasal vestibule
Nostril
Hard palate
Soft palate
Tongue
(c) Illustration
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.3c
Histology of nasal cavity
• Olfactory mucosa
• Lines the superior nasal cavity
• Contains smell receptors
• Respiratory mucosa
• Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Paranasal Sinuses
Air containing cavities in Frontal, sphenoid,
ethmoid, and maxillary bones of the skull.
(Lighten the skull and help to warm and moisten the
air)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pharynx
• Muscular tube that connects to the
• Nasal cavity and mouth superiorly
• Larynx and esophagus inferiorly
• Extend from the base of the skull to the level of
the sixth cervical vertebra.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Base of skull
Pharynx
Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx
6th cervical
vertebra
(b) Regions of the pharynx
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.3b
Nasopharynx
• Air passageway posterior to the nasal cavity
• Lining: pseudostratified columnar epithelium
• Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids) on posterior wall
• Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubes open into the
lateral walls.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Nasopharynx
Pharyngeal tonsil
Opening of
pharyngotympanic
tube
Uvula
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.3c
Oropharynx
• Passageway for food and air from the level of the
soft palate to the epiglottis
• Lining of stratified squamous epithelium
• Palatine tonsils in the lateral walls
• Lingual tonsil on the posterior surface of the
tongue
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Oropharynx
Soft palate -uvula
Palatine tonsil
Lingual tonsils
epiglottis
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.3c
Laryngopharynx
• Passageway for food and air
• Posterior to the upright epiglottis
• Extends to the larynx, where it is also continuous
with the esophagus
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Laryngopharynx
Larynx
Epiglottis
Esophagus
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.3c
Larynx
• Attaches to the hyoid bone and opens into the
laryngopharynx
• Continuous with the trachea
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Epiglottis
Body of hyoid bone
Tracheal cartilages
(b) Sagittal view; anterior surface to the right
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.4b
Larynx
• Cartilages of the larynx
• Hyaline cartilage except for the epiglottis
• Thyroid cartilage with laryngeal prominence (Adam’s
apple)
• Ring-shaped cricoid cartilage
• Epiglottis: elastic cartilage; covers the laryngeal inlet
during swallowing
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Epiglottis
Body of hyoid bone
Thyroid cartilage
Laryngeal prominence
(Adam’s apple)
Cricoid cartilage
Tracheal cartilages
(a) Anterior superficial view
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.4a
Paired arytenoid, cuneiform, and corniculate
cartilages on the posterior surface of the larynx.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Larynx
• Vocal ligaments
• Form core of vocal folds (true vocal cords)
• Opening between them is the glottis
• Folds vibrate to produce sound as air rushes up
from the lungs
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Base of tongue
Epiglottis
Vestibular fold
(false vocal cord)
Vocal fold
(true vocal cord)
Glottis
Inner lining of trachea
Cuneiform cartilage
Corniculate cartilage
(a) Vocal folds in closed position;
closed glottis
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
(b) Vocal folds in open position;
open glottis
Figure 22.5
SUMMARY
KEY POINTS
• Major organs of the respiratory system
• Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses
• Pharynx
• Larynx
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
KEY POINTS
Functional Anatomy
Respiratory zone: site of gas exchange
• Microscopic structures: respiratory bronchioles, alveolar
ducts, and alveoli
Conducting zone: conduits to gas exchange sites
• Includes all other respiratory structures
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
KEY POINTS
Anatomy of major organs:
Nose & Nasal cavity
1. External nose
2. Nasal cavity
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
KEY POINTS
Paranasal sinuses
Frontal
Sphenoid
Ethmoid
Maxillary
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
KEY POINTS
Pharynx
Muscular tube that connects to the
• Nasal cavity and mouth superiorly
• Larynx and esophagus inferiorly
From the base of the skull to the level of the sixth
cervical vertebra
• Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
KEY POINTS
Larynx
• Attaches to the hyoid bone and opens into the
laryngopharynx
• Continuous with the trachea
Cartilages of the larynx
Hyaline cartilage, Thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage
Paired :arytenoid, cuneiform, and corniculate cartilages
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
KEY POINTS
Epiglottis: elastic cartilage; covers the laryngeal
inlet during swallowing
Vocal ligaments
Form core of vocal folds (true vocal cords)
Opening between them is the glottis
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
ANY QUESTIONS??????
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.