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Neurotransmission Practice
1. The extensions of the neuron that receives messages from other neurons are the ______________________.
2. The extensions of a neuron that transmit information to other neurons are the ________________________; some of
these extensions are insulated by a layer of fatty cells called the ________________________, which help speed the
neuron’s impulses.
3. Identify the major parts of the neuron diagrammed below:
a. __________________________
c. _______________________________
b. __________________________
d. _______________________________
4. The neural impulse, or ___________________________________-, is a brief electrical charge that travels down a(n)
5. The fluid interior of a resting axon carries mostly (positively/negatively) charged ions, while the fluid outside has
mostly (positively/negatively) charged ions. This polarization, called the _______________________________, occurs
because the cell membrane is selectively _______________________________.
6. An action potential occurs when the first part of the axon opens its gates and (positively/negatively) charged ions rush
in, causing that part of the neuron to be ____________________________.
7. During the resting pause following an action potential, called the ___________________ _____________________,
the neuron pumps (positively, negatively) charged ions outside the cell.
8. In order to trigger a neural impulse, _________________ signals minus ___________________ signals must exceed a
certain intensity, called the _____________________. Increasing a stimulus above this level (will/will not) increase the
neural impulse’s intensity. This phenomenon is called an _______________- ___- ______________ response.
9. The strength of a stimulus (does/does not) affect the speed of an action potential.
10. The junction between two neurons is called a ___________________.
11. The chemical messengers that convey information across the gaps between neurons are called
________________________. These chemicals unlock tiny channels on receptor sites, allowing electrically charged
________________ to enter the neuron.
12. Neurotransmitters influence neurons either by ________________________ or _____________________ their
readiness to fire. Excess neurotransmitters are reabsorbed to the sending neuron in a process called
13. Among the neurotransmitters that researchers have pinpointed is ________________, which influences movement,
learning, attention, and emotions and seems to play a role in schizophrenia. The neurotransmitter, ______________,
affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal, while _________________________ affects alertness and arousal. Finally,
_____________ is an inhibitory neurotransmitter implicated in eating and sleep disorders and is enhanced by alcohol
14. A neurotransmitter that is important in muscle contraction is _______________. The poison, _________________,
produces paralysis by blocking the activity of this neurotransmitter.
15. Naturally occurring opiatelike neurotransmitters that are present in the brain are called ____________________. When
the brain is flooded with drugs such as ________________ or _________________________, it may stop producing
these neurotransmitters.
16. Drugs that produce their effects by mimicking neurotransmitters are called _________________________. Drugs that
block the effects of neurotransmitters by occupying their _____________________________ are called
17. The molecular shape of some drugs prevents them from passing through the ______________________________________ barrier by which the brain filters out unwanted chemicals.
18. The tremors of ___________________ disease are due to the death of neurons that produce the neurotransmitter
________________________. People with this condition can be helped to regain control over their muscles by taking