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Chapter 4 & 9
Ecology of Marine Biology
Is it Alive?
• Observe object:
• 1-Tell what you think object is.
• 2-Place specimen in one of three categories:
– A- is alive
– B- Not alive now-used to be alive or came from
something that was alive
– C-Not alive, never was alive
• 3-Then list characteristics that helped you
decide A, B, or C.
Is it Alive?
• Step 1
• Go through your list of characteristics. Were
the characteristics chosen absolutely
necessary for the maintenance of life? Hint: (If
you can think of any organism that does not
have to do that, it is not necessary. Write “N”
for necessary beside the appropriate
characteristics.
Is it Alive?
• Step 2
• Were there any characteristics that would
appear in all specimens? Make a list of these
characteristics on the bottom of your page.
Is it Alive?
• Step 3
• Now write a definition for “life” including as
many characteristics of life as possible on the
back of your handout.
Is it Alive?
• Step 4
• Now in a group of students assigned by your
teacher discuss your definition for “life”
including as many characteristics of life as
possible. Make sure that all members of your
group can defend the group’s answers. Be
ready for class discussion.
Requirements of Life
1. Process energy and material
Examples:
Requirements of Life
1. Process energy and material
Examples:
2. Maintain organization, grow, and reproduce
Examples:
Requirements of Life
1. Process energy and material
Examples:
2. Maintain organization, grow, and reproduce
Examples:
3. Respond to environment
Examples:
Joshu’s new grocery store
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Frozen Dinner
Milk
Meat
Donuts
Mac/Cheese
Ribbon
Bread
Motor Oil
12 Pack Pepsi
Nails
Water
Cheese
Laundry Soap
Eggs
Rope
Chips
Pounds
Dozens
Gallons
By the
Foot
Package
Levels of Organization of Life
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cell
Individual
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Macromolecules
Lipids - Fat, Cholesterol, Steroids
Carbohydrates - 1. Simple - glucose (sugar)
- 2. Complex - starch
Protein - amino acids
Nucleic Acid - DNA/RNA
Plants capture the suns energy and turn it into food for
themselves (photosynthesis)
Photosynthesis
H2O + CO2
Reactants
C6H12O6 + O2
Products
Respiration
C6H12O6
H2O + CO2 + Energy
Photosynthesis
Respiration is the opposite of photosynthesis. Respiration breaks
down organic matter, using O2 and producing CO2 and H20.
Cells Prokaryote - Bacteria
Eukaryote - Plants, Animals, Protists, and
Fungi
Prokaryotic cell (bacterium) – no membrane bound organelles –
smallest and simplest.
Bacteria were the first life forms on the earth. Fossil bacteria
show an age of 3.8 billion years old, almost as old as the ocean
itself.
Eukaryotes – contain membrane bound organelles (plant and
animal cells)
Reproduction Strategies
Prudent
Prodigal
Few young
Many young
Energy is
invested in care
of young
1 -12
Mammals
Whales
Dolphins
Energy is invested in
making an enormous
amount of young
100’s
some fish
1000’s
Fish/invertebrates
Sponge sea
urchin
Sea grass reproduction by runners or stolens.
Sexual reproduction by Sea Urchin
Giant Clam reproducing by broadcast spawning.
Male jawfish incubate eggs in it’s mouth.
Fur seals care for their young for a long time.
Fungi
Protista Mushrooms Plantae
Sea grass
Ex.Ameoba Mold
Mangrove
Diatom
Dinoflagellate
Animalia
Algae
Algae
Modern
Bacteria
Protista
Monera
Archaebacteria
Ciliates
Flagellates
Classification based on cellular
organization and mode of nutrition
All Life
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
(Bacteria, monera)
Single cell or multi cell
(Protista)
Complex
Muticellular
Photosynthetic Autotroph
Heterotroph
(Plant)
Absorb
Catch
(fungi)
(animal)
Trophic Levels
Producers - Autotroph
Consumer - Heterotroph
Scavenger
Carnivore
Herbivore
Omnivore
Decomposer
Filter Feeder
Detritavore
DOM
C-5
Consumer
Heterotroph
C-4
C-3
C-2
C-1
Car.
Car.
Carnivore
Carnivore
Herbivore
(zooplankton)
Producers
(Autrotroph
Phytoplankton)
Food Chain
Shadows in a Desert Sea
Sea of Cortez
Dolphins
Sardines
Mycid Shrimp
Phytoplankton
Food Chain
FOOD WEB
FOOD WEB
FOOD WEB
FOOD WEB
exponential growth