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Transcript
‫بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم‬
‫﴿و ما أوتيتم من العلم إال قليال﴾‬
‫صدق هللا العظيم‬
‫االسراء اية ‪58‬‬
By
Dr. Abdel Aziz M. Hussein
Lecturer of Medical Physiology
Member of American Society of Physiology
Physiology of Special senses, Abdelaziz
Hussein
2
Electromagnetic
radiations
• Light is a form of radiant energy, consisting of
electromagnetic waves
• Its velocity in air it is 300,000 km/second, but it is
much slower through transparent solids & liquids
e.g. in the glass it is 200.000 Km/sec
• The wave-length of visible light to the human eye
ranges from 400 to 750 nm
Air
Medium
• When light rays strike a surface, they are either;
1. Reflected (white objects reflect all light)
2. Absorbed (black objects absorb all rays)
3. Transmitted through it, with or without
refraction
Air
Medium
Incidence
angle
Refraction
angle
• It is the ratio of velocity of light in air to the
velocity in the substance.
• It is 1.0 for air, 1.5 for glass, and 1.33 for water
Principal axis
Nodal Point
Focal Length
Focus or
Focal point
Principal axis
Virtual Focus
Nodal Point
• The power (or strength) of lenses is measured in
diopters
• e.g. the power of a lens having a focal length
• 0.1 meter = 1/ 0.1 = 10 diopters.
1. Convex and concave lenses
2. Spherical and cylindrical lenses
Aqueous Humor
RI= 1.34
Aqueous Humor
RI= 1.33
Cornea
Lens
RI= 1.40
RP= +20 diopters
RI= 1.38
RP= +39 diopters
•The cornea is the transparent anterior 1/6 of outer coat of
the eyeball.
•It is 11 mm in diameter & 1.0 mm in thickness.
•5 layers;
Significance
• Maintains dehydration and transparency of the cornea
Sources
Corneo-scleral junction
(O2 and glucose)
Tears
O2
Aqueous humour
(glucose)
• It contains ascorbic acid & glutathione which act as H2 acceptors
in anaerobic metabolism
Anatomic factors
1. Regular & uniform arrangement of the epithelial
cells & lamellae.
2. Absence of blood vessels & myelinated nerve
fibers
Physical factors
1. The refractive index of various layers of cornea is
the same.
2. Relative corneal dehydration by osmotic pump
and metabolic pump
1. Vitamin A
2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
3. Moistening of the corneal surface by tears
4. Metabolic pump of the endothelial cells
1. It is transparent structure
allowing the passage of light
rays into the eye.
2. The regular curvature of the
corneal surface helps the
formation of sharp clear images
on the retina.
3. It acts as a powerful convex lens (+ 39- 43 diopters) having
70% of total diopteric power of the eye.
4. Protection of inner structures of the eyeball by
a. Its fibrous structure
b. It absorbs ultraviolet rays that fall on the eye (protect the
retina)
c. The corneal reflex (touch of the cornea by any foreign body
e.g. piece of cotton results in reflex blinking of both eyes)
Touch of
cornea
Trigeminal
Nerve
Pontine
Center
Facial
Nerve
Physiology of Special senses, Abdelaziz
Hussein
30
Physiology of Special senses, Abdelaziz
Hussein
31
• It is a condition in which the curvatures of the cornea are
not the same in all directions (planes).
• It is treated by cylindrical or contact lenses
• It is a congenital condition in which there is a
conical protrusion of the cornea
• It is treated by contact lens or corneal grafting
• It is a condition in which part of the cornea becomes
nontransparent
• It is treated by corneal grafting.
• It constitutes the posterior
opaque 5/6 of the outer
coat of the eye.
• It is covered anteriorly by
the conjunctival
membrane.
• Normally, it is whitish in
adults & bluish in infants &
young children.
• It is opaque due to marked
irregularity of its fibres
• Functions of Sclera:
1. It protects the delicate
inner eye structures
2. It gives attachment to
the external ocular
muscles.
THANKS