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The Basis of Cellular
10.2 and 10.3
Vocabulary Clarification
Human Karyotype
XX = Female
XY = Male
HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES: carry the same genetic info, one copy is
from Mom and one copy is from Dad
Diploid vs. Haploid
Diploid cells (2n) have 2 sets of chromosomes
(somatic cells- almost all the cells in the body)
Haploid cells (n) have one set of chromosomes
(gametes or sex cells)
The Cell Cycle
Phases of Mitosis: PROPHASE
Phases of Mitosis: METAPHASE
Phases of Mitosis: ANAPHASE
Phases of Mitosis: TELOPHASE
Regulating The Cell Cycle
• Cells complete the cell cycle at different
paces; some cells don’t divide
(ex: neurons, cardiac muscle)
• Special proteins (called cyclins) direct the
sequence of events and serve as
• When this “control system” malfunctions,
cells reproduce at the wrong time
Tumors and Cancer
Cancer is a disorder in which some of the body’s cells
lose the ability to control growth.
As a result, cells divide uncontrollably and form masses of
cells called tumors (can be benign or malignant).
Sometimes cancer cells break away from the tumor and
spread from their site of origin (metastasis).
Combating cancer requires a deep understanding of the
cell cycle.
Cancer Treatment
Remove tumor from tissue
Expose dividing tumor cells
to high-energy radiation
to disrupt division
Use antimitotic drugs to
prevent spindle formation
or function
• Damage reproductive
cell development
• Damage intestinal
cells (nausea)
• Damage hair follicle
cells (hair loss)