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Do Now: Is the dancer turning
clockwise or counter clockwise?
Put your
right hand
in the air
Put your
finger on
your ear
Say “This
is my
What your brain just did…
Analyzed instructions to lift
right hand
Triggered emotions in midbrain…”Is she nuts?” “Why
are we doing this?”
Sent to speech area to say
the words
Put words together into
Called on area that
controls hand movements
in left part of your brain
Called on area that
controls hand movements
(your finger did not end up
in your eye or nose!)
Searched memory bank for
words you needed
What is the structure of the brain?
Comprised of three major parts
•Lower Brain
•Mid Brain
•Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex
•(upper brain)
Over 100
Billion Cells
Each part works
with others to
control what
think feel and
What does the brain look like?
• Tightly compressed
• Studying uses more
energy than jogging
• Uses 20% of your
• Is protected in multiple
Corpus Callosum
Broad, thick band
running from side to
side and consisting
of millions and
millions of nerve
between left and
right sides of brain.
Highway of
information – it is the
Bridge of the I-84 of
your brain!
Upper Brain
Mid Brain
Lower Brain
Brain Stem
What is the Upper Brain?
• Cerebral Cortex: outermost layer of
brain covers the cerebrum – gray
• Higher level thought
• 100 Billion nerve cells
• It is the most highly developed part
of the human brain and is
responsible for thinking, perceiving,
producing and understanding
• It is also the most recent structure
in the history of brain evolution
Why is the cerebral cortex so
• Personality: makes us “human”
• “Seat of the soul”
• Example: when faced with severe brain injury
to frontal lobe– personality sometimes
changes completely
• Strokes, tumors – sometimes causes this
What does the mid brain do?
Mid Brain
Sense of
Possible connection?
What does the lower brain do?
Brain divided into two sides
Fissure: groove along center
Right: controls left
Left: controls right
Right Brain or Left Brain?
You have inherited 1,000,000 dollars!
Congratulations! You are moving to new
house you are having made and have to
pack your things in boxes.
1. How will you pack your priceless
glassware that Aunt Edna left you in her will
to make sure they don’t break? If any of
them break, the money has to be given to a
distant cousin. Describe in a few sentences
how you will pack the glasses?
Where does the brain sit?
Central Station of
Human Nervous System
CNS (Central Nervous
Floats in cerebrospinal
Enclosed in the cranium
Most common damage:
stroke, blunt head
How is the brain protected?
• Protected by the thick
bones of the skull
• Cerebral Cortex covering
• Suspended in
cerebrospinal fluid
• Isolated from the
bloodstream by the
blood-brain barrier a
membrane that protects
the brain.
• The delicate nature of the
human brain makes it
susceptible to many types of
damage and disease.
• Infection of the brain is rare
because of the barriers that
protect it, but is very serious
when it occurs.
• Multiple Sclerosis-mylen,
insulation for nerves, is
• Parkinson’s Disease,
Huntington’s Chorea = CNS
Phineas Gage: Neuroscience’s Most Famous Patient
There are three parts to the brain on a horizontal level
• Upper Brain: higher level thinking
• Mid Brain: (Limbic System)vision, hearing, motor
control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and
temperature regulation
• Lower Brain: primitive functions, aggression, fight or
• Brain Stem: autonomic functions
• Two hemispheres – right hemisphere controls left, left
hemisphere controls right
• Brain Dominance Theory: Right brain dominant – art,
language, creative. Left brain – logical, math, organized
What is a stroke?
A stroke is a medical emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within
minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind,
called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the
brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and
bleeds into the brain. "Mini-strokes" or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), occur when the
blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted.
Symptoms of stroke are
• Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg (especially on one side of the body)
• Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech
• Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
• Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination
• Sudden severe headache with no known cause
• If you have any of these symptoms, you must get to a hospital quickly to begin treatment.
Acute stroke therapies try to stop a stroke while it is happening by quickly dissolving the
blood clot or by stopping the bleeding. Post-stroke rehabilitation helps individuals overcome
disabilities that result from stroke damage. Drug therapy with blood thinners is the most
common treatment for stroke.
NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Do Now:
Make a happy face
Make an angry face
Make a sad face
Make a fearful face
How do you know how to do that?
Face Blindness Test
Cerebral cortex: covers brain (gray matter)
Fissure: groove along middle of brain
Parietal Lobe: sensory strip
Motor Strip: along frontal lobe - movement
Temporal Lobe: speech, hearing
Prefrontal Lobe:
Occipital Lobe:
interprets visual
Frontal Lobe::reasoning, personality,
Cerebellum: balance, Reticular Activating System:
Thought, complex thoughts
Cerebral cortex: covers brain (gray matter)
Fissure: groove along middle of brain
Parietal Lobe: sensory strip
Motor Strip: along frontal lobe - movement
Temporal Lobe: speech, hearing
Prefrontal Lobe:
Occipital Lobe:
interprets visual
Frontal Lobe::reasoning, personality,
Cerebellum: balance, Reticular Activating System:
Thought, complex thoughts
Do Now:
This is a G rated activity–
touch the area where your corpus callosum
(under the fissure) is
Now touch your frontal lobe.
Now your Parietal lobe
Now your Temporal lobe
Now your Occipital lobe
Now your Cerebellum
Now your Medulla Oblongata
Reading: Disorders of the Brain
Attention Deficit Disorder
TBI: Traumatic Brain Injury
Alzheimer’s Disease
Dementia with Lewey Bodies:
Although, where Alzheimer’s disease usually begins quite
gradually, DLB often has a rapid or acute onset, with especially
rapid decline in the first few months.
• While the specific symptoms in a person with DLB will vary,
core features of DLB are: 1) fluctuating cognition with great
variations in attention and alertness from day to day and hour
to hour 2) recurrent visual hallucinations. 3.)REM Behavior
Do Now: Draw a Clock
During the mini-cog, a
person is asked to complete
two tasks:
1. Remember and a few
minutes later repeat the
names of three common
2. Draw a face of a clock
showing all 12 numbers in
the right places and a time
specified by the examiner
3. The results of this brief test
can help a physician
determine if further
evaluation is needed.
Mini-mental state exam (MMSE)
During the MMSE, a health professional asks a patient a series of questions designed
to test a range of everyday mental skills.
Examples of questions include:
Remember and repeat a few minutes later the names of three common
objects (for instance, horse, flower, penny)
State the year, season, day of the week and date
Count backward from 100 by 7s or spell "world" backwards
Name two familiar objects in the office as the examiner points to them
Identify the location of the examiner's office (state, city, street address,
Repeat a common phrase or saying after the examiner
Copy a picture of two interlocking shapes
Follow a three-part instruction, such as: take a piece of paper in your right
hand, fold it in half, and place it on the floor
• Researchers found that healthy test subjects
were able to list 20 to 25 words in each test,
but patients with Alzheimer's could remember
only 10 to 15 words.
• The Alzheimer's patients were unable to
remember words learned later in life but
could remember words learned in early
childhood. This pattern was so consistent that
researchers were able to determine which
subjects had Alzheimer's based on this word
What are some other parts of their
brain and their purpose?
Brain stem: internal physical state of body
Medulla Oblongata: breathing, heartbeat
Pons: regulates brain during sleep
Thalamus: relay station between senses and
cerebral cortex
Cerebellum: balance and movement
Limbic system: emotions, memory
Hippocampus: long term memory
Amygdala: aggression, emotion, motives, (very
active during adolescence)
Hypothalamus: eating, drinking, body temperature
Exit Quiz
• What is the Newburgh-Beacon Bridge of the
Interstate 84 of your brain called?
• What does it mean if a neurologist asks you to
“Draw a Clock”?
• What rare and controversial procedure is
sometimes done to patients with severe
seizure disorders?
• List as many fruits as you can!
• Get ready, get set GO!
• Subjects were asked to list as many types
of fruit they could think of in a second
timed test.
• In 2005, a study was reported in
"Neuropsychologia" in which researchers
tested 96 people diagnosed with
Alzheimer's and compared the results to
40 healthy people.
Split Brain Game
What are Neurons?
• Cell body
• DNA,
• Long cable-like
• Carries nerve
impulse on
length of cell
• Thin covering
over nerve
• Like insulated
electrical wire
• Branches
with other cells
• Located at either
end of cell
Myelinated neurons are found in the peripheral nerves
(sensory and motor neurons), while non-myelinated
neurons are found in the brain and spinal cord.
• This neuron travels from your
brain to your body?
• This neuron travels from your
body to your brain?
• These neurons help neurons
connect to each other to get to
their source?
• What is the insulation covering
your peripheral nerves called?
• What disease is caused by an
autoimmune reaction which
causes a deterioration of this
Sensory Neurons: Travel from body to brain
Motor Neurons: Travel from brain to body
Interneurons: Connect sensory and motor
Receptors; Put information into
electrical/chemical messages to be transmitted by
sensory neurons
The Role of Neurons in your Brain
I travel from
body to
I travel
from brain
to body
What he
We put information
into electrochemical
transmitted by
sensory neurons
I connect sensory
and motor
Synapses, neurotransmitters,
neurons…oh my!
• Gather and transmit
electric and chemical
• Point where 2 or
more neurons
connect, (pass info)
• Signals travel up to
several feet
• Chemicals in the
endings of nerve cells
that send information
across synapse
The Amazing Synapse!
Neurons have specialized projections
called dendrites and axons.
A synapse is a structure that permits a neuron
to pass an electrical or chemical signal to
another cell (neural or otherwise).
What are Neurotransmitters made up of?
Motor Functions
Too much – Schizophrenia (theory)
Too little – Parkinson's and other
movement diseases
Attention and R.E.M. Sleep Inducer (RAS)
Too little: Myasthenia Gravis (muscle
Alzheimer’s Link
Relieve pain, increase wellbeing
Natural form of morphine (woo hoo!)
chemical that helps maintain a "happy
feeling," helps with sleep, anxiety,
gamma-aminobutyric acid
amino acid that helps induce relaxation
and sleep builds muscle tone.
It balances the brain by inhibiting overexcitation
Reticular Activating System
• Keeps us alert or puts us to sleep – alcohol
mimics reticular system neurons
The reason that
most drunk driving
accidents are due
to drivers falling
asleep at the wheel
• The main objective of a Reuptake Inhibitor is
to substantially decrease the rate by which
neurotransmitters are reabsorbed, leaving a
in the concentration of
neurotransmitter in the synapse.
• Example: Antidepressant drugs often use
ssri’s (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
to cause a GAIN in amount of serotonin in
Serotonin Overdose
5-HT1 agonists
Monoamine oxidase
inhibitors (MAOIs),[1] TCAs,[1] SSRIs,[1] SNRIs,[1]
bupropion,[6] nefazodone,[7] trazodone[7]
tramadol,[1] pethidine,[1] fentanyl,[1] pentazoci
ne,[1] buprenorphine[8]oxycodone,[9] hydrocod
phentermine,[10] diethylpropion,[10] amphetam
ine,[3][10] sibutramine,[1]methylphenidate,[10] m
ethamphetamine,[10] cocaine[10]
Ecstasy Crystal Meth Meth] LSD[11][12]
CNS stimulants
St John's Wort,[1] Syrian rue,[1] Panax
ginseng,[1] Nutmeg[13]
tryptophan,[1] LDopa,[14] valproate,[1] buspirone,[1] lithium,[1] li
nezolid,[1][15]dextromethorphan,[1] 5hydroxytryptophan,[7] chlorpheniramine,[10] ris
peridone,[16]olanzapine,[17] ondansetron,[1] gra
nisetron,[1] metoclopramide,[1] ritonavir[1]
What did we learn?
Why do people have split brain surgery?
What is Myelin:
Where to Motor Neurons travel?:
Where do Sensory Neurons Travel
What do Interneurons do?
What do Receptors do?
receive neurotransmitters
What are Neurotransmitters?
electrical/chemical messages passed along by neurons
What is Serotonin?
What is Dopamine known for?
What is Synesthesia? How did it effect Daniel Tammet?
Exit Quiz
“Born on a Blue Day”
Take out your notebook and write down these
• What is Daniel Tammet’s ability?
• What is synesthesia?
• What other neurological disorder does Daniel
have and how does it limit his life?
• How does it enrich his life?
• Who did he meet….?
Exit Quiz
Reading: What are reflexes?
1. Read article
2. Answer questions for
“reading” …you will answer
the “listening” questions at
the end of class and hand in.
• Look closely into the eyes of your closest
(don’t worry…it’s not romantic)
Pupillary Response
What are reflexes?
•A reflex is an involuntary or automatic, action
that your body does in response to something without you even having to think about it.
• There are many types of reflexes and every
healthy person has them. In fact, we're born
with most of them…and most of them fade by
age 6 months.
•Some infant reflexes that show up in
adulthood can be signs of neurological disease.
Why do we have reflexes?
• Reflexes protect your body from things that can harm
• For example, if you put your hand on a hot stove, a
reflex causes you to immediately remove your hand
before a "Hey, this is hot!" message even gets to
your brain
• Other examples of protective reflexes are blinking
when something flies toward your eyes or raising
your arm if a ball is thrown your way. Even coughing
and sneezing are reflexes. They clear the airways of
irritating things
What are the reasons for reflexes?
• Evolutionary Perspective?
• Survival Instinct?
• Reflexes take place without traveling from
brain (motor neurons) to sensory neurons
How are reflexes different than reactions?
• They use inter-neurons to communicate
without direct motor neurons!
Common Reflexes
(eyes – constriction
Or dilation)
(leaning against
side of spine
that is stroked)
Babinski Reflex
• Babinski's reflex occurs when the big toe
moves toward the top of the foot and the
other toes fan out after the sole of the foot
has been firmly stroked.
• This reflex, or sign, is normal in younger
children, but abnormal after the age of 2
• The presence of a Babinski's reflex after age 2
is a sign of damage to the nerve paths
connecting the spinal cord and the brain
Babinski on Infant
Babinski Explanation
Moro Reflex
• It is normally present in all infants/newborns
up to 4 or 5 months of age
• Absence indicates a profound disorder of the
motor system.
• Persistence of the Moro response beyond 4 or
5 months of age is noted only in infants with
severe neurological defects
• It is believed to be the only unlearned fear in
human newborns
Tonic (Fencers) Reflex
• known as the “fencing reflex" because of the
characteristic position of the infant's arms and
head, which resembles that of a trained
• Beyond the first months of life may indicate
that the child has developmental delays, at
which point the reflex is atypical or abnormal.
For example, in children with cerebral palsy
the reflexes may persist and even be more
Knee Jerk or (DTR) reflex
• The reflex that the doctor checks by tapping
your knee is called the patellar, or knee-jerk,
reflex. It is also known as a deep tendon reflex
(DTR) This tap stretches the tendon and
the muscle in the thigh that connects to it.
• A message then gets sent to the spinal cord
that the muscle has been stretched.The spinal
cord very quickly sends a message back to the
muscle telling it to contract. The contraction
of the muscle causes your lower leg to kick
Knee Jerk (Patellar) Reflex
Causes of Abnormal Knee Jerk Response
• Hyperactive (knee jerks too much): ALS, brain
tumor, stroke, liver disease, hypocalcemia (low
calcium), hypomagnesemia (low magnesium),
hypothermia, multiple sclerosis, preeclampsia,
spinal cord lesion and tetanus.
• Hypoactive (knee doesn't jerk enough):
botulism, nerve inflammation, peripheral
neuropathy, polio, untreated syphillis,
diabetes, alcoholism, arthritis, etc.
Galant Reflex
• ://
Reflexes & seizures
• Seizures: Grand Mal, Petit Mal, Idiopathic, Absence – often
preceded by signs
• Types of reflexes: Knee Jerk, Babinski, Moro, Fencers (Tonic)
• Primitive reflexes in adulthood often sign of neurological
• Absence of reflexes in infancy – neurologicial problem
• Normal adult reflexes protect us.
What have we learned?
• Cerebral Cortex – covers your brain, gray matter
• Hemispheres-each half of the brain that has different roles.
Hemisphere dominance is a theory…what do you think?
• Corpus Callosum: The Newburgh Beacon Bridge of the
Interstate 84 of your brain
• Frontal Lobe: reasoning, higher level thought processes
• Parietal Lobe: motor strip, sensory strip
• Temporal Lobe: hearing, speech
• Occipital Lobe: sight
• Medulla: autonomic functions
• Cerebellum: balance, coordination
• Pons and RAS: sleep, recognition of faces
• Prefrontal lobe: seat of the soul, personal memories
• Lower brain: primitive reactions
• Midbrain: smell, emotion (limbic system)
• The blood brain barrier protects your brain from
• Myelin: fatty sheath that covers nerves similar to an
electrical wire – lesions can cause neurological
• Right Brain/Left Brain Theory (R=holistic L= analytical
• Neurons: Motor = brain to body, Sensory = body to
brain, Interneuron=connections between nerves,
Receptors=receive neurotransmitter
• Neurotransmitters: electrical/chemical
messages passed along by neurons
• Serotonin: happy chemical
• Dopamine: movement
• Acetylcholine: sleep, attention
• Endorphins: natural morphine
• Types of reflexes: Knee Jerk, Babinski, Moro,
Fencers (Tonic)
• Primitive reflexes in adulthood often sign of
neurological disease
• Normal adult reflexes protect us.
Exit Quiz
Neuroscience Test – Midterm
Notes: Online and Review Sheets
Today: Intro to Awakenings – Thurs.
Fri. Midterm
Mon. Awakenings (end)
Do Now:
• Mystery of the Forgotten Plague
• Oliver Sacks
Introduction: Awakenings
Dr. Oliver Sacks
In 1966 Dr. Sacks began working as a consulting neurologist
for Beth Abraham Hospital in the Bronx, a chronic care
hospital where he encountered an extraordinary group of
patients, many of whom had spent decades in strange,
frozen states, like human statues, unable to initiate
movement. He recognized these patients as survivors of
the great pandemic of sleepy sickness that had swept the
world from 1916 to 1927, and treated them with a thenexperimental drug, L-dopa, which enabled them to come
back to life.
They became the subjects of his book Awakenings, which
later inspired a play by Harold Pinter ("A Kind of Alaska")
and the Oscar-nominated feature film ("Awakenings") with
Robert De Niro and Robin Williams. Dr. Sacks is a NYT
bestselling author and award winning Neurologist. You can
reach him at
This film is based on a true story
Awakenings Day 1 Questions
1. What are Leonard’s first symptoms?
2. What is Dr. “Sacks” real job description?
3. What is his reaction to Bronx Chronic
4. What do you notice about the “statues”?
5. Would you bother to treat these patients if
you were in charge of this unit? Why or why
Awakenings Day 2 Questions
1. What do the other doctors think Lucy’s catching
the ball is?
2. What is the difference between a reflex and a
3. In reference to neuron activity – why would the
fact that this is a “reaction” rather than a reflex
mean for the patient?
4. How does Dr. “Sacks” convince the staff to consider
these patients more than just the “garden”?
5. Which patient does he focus on first and why?
Midterm Review
Introduction to Psychology
Psychological Approaches and Modalities
Famous Early Psychologists
Freud and his Theory of Personality & Psychosexual Stages of Development
• Research Methods & Ethics
• Neuroscience Unit