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Center 1: The Agora a market and a meeting place people bought and sold goods, such as fruit, bread, tools and clothing at the agora where citizens, metics, and trusted slaves set up stalls to sell goods a place where people could exchange news and opinions was near government buildings, therefore many citizens met in the agora to discuss government/political issues Question: Why was the Agora important to the democracy of ancient Athens? What could you compare the agora to in modern democracy? Center 2: Pnyx Hill [pu-NINKS] the Assembly would meet at a large open area at the top of the Pnyx hill members of the Assembly would make speeches, debate, listen, discuss and vote on the Pnyx hill A citizen who wanted to address the Assembly would stand on a rock platform so he could be seen and heard As the meeting place for the Assembly, the world’s first democratic government, Pnyx Hill remains an important archaeological site and tourist destination in Greece today Question: “Pnyx” is a Greek word that means what? Center 3: The Assembly the Assembly (aka ekklesia)met on the Pnyx Hill all citizens, whether rich or poor, had the right to make a speech and vote members of the assembly made decisions on issues like: war and peace, treaties with other city-states, religion, taxes, and the proper construction of ships members would make speeches, debate, listen, discuss and finally vote Direct democracy- citizens vote directly on government decisions voting was most often a show of hands occasionally Assembly members used stones to represent their decision a white stone might indicate that a citizen supported a certain decision, while a brown stone indicated the opposite position citizens voted by dropping their stones into large jugs, which were then separated and counted the decree or decision was then announced Decree- a decision made by people who are in authority Question: What is the difference between representative democracy and direct democracy? Center 4: Ostracizing Members of the Assembly once a year, members of the Assembly could vote to exile one person (possibly someone who was seen as a threat to the state or an enemy of democracy) members would scratch the name of this person on a broken piece of pottery called an “ostrakon”. Broken pottery was plentiful and free, and was used as a type of ancient scrap paper! An example of “ostrakon” This is where the English word “ostracize” comes from the officials then sorted the names into separate piles, and the person with the highest number of votes was exiled for 10 years the person chosen had 10 days to leave the city. If he attempted to return, the penalty was death Task: Look up and record the dictionary definition of “ostrasized”. Center 5: The Boule (aka The Council of 500) was a council of 500 members (hence the name Council of 500) which met at the Bouleterion members were chosen on a yearly basis and could only serve on the council twice but never two years in a row members were drawn by lot from the group of Athenian (male) citizens who were over 30 years old a “lotting” machine (pictured below) helped the citizens of ancient Athens draw the names of people at random for the Boule. Lead discs inscribed with names were put in the slots. the Boule made decisions about Athens’ day-today affairs members of the Boule were paid, so that citizens without wealth could afford to devote their time to government Question: In what way does the selection process for the Boule (Council of 500) reflect fairness and equity? Center 6: Athenian Courts Magistrates If Athenians felt that they had been wronged by someone, or if they thought someone was not acting in the best interest of society, they would bring their complaint to a magistrate Magistrates were citizens and officers of the court, who were chosen by lottery for a one-year term. Sometimes magistrates would set a fine as a punishment. Other times, they would send the case to trial. Jury Male citizens over 30 could be chosen A jury usually had between 501 and 1500 people Jurors were chosen by lottery on the day of the trial Metics could be involved in legal cases, but they could not serve on juries Defendant versus Plaintiff Defendant: the person who is accused of a crime in a court case Plaintiff: the person who brings a complaint about another person to court A woman defendant in a jury trial needed to have a male citizen speak for her In ancient Athenian times, the plaintiff and the defendant had to be able to speak well to convince the jury of their position Wealthy Athenians sometimes hired professional speech writers to help them make more effective arguments When both sides had been heard, the jury would vote on whether the defendant was innocent or guilty If the defendant was found guilty, the jury would vote on the punishment Klepsydra (Water Clock) To ensure that plaintiffs and defendants has an equal amount of time to make their case in court, water clocks were used Each got the same amount of water in the jar When the water ran out, his time for speaking was over Questions: 1) Why do you think Athenian jurors were chosen on the day of the trial? 2) How many jurors sit on a jury in the Canadian court system today?