Alcohols are soluble in water due to the hydrogen bonding between the extra hydrogen and the water molecules. This leads to lower volatility, because the alcohol is less readily able to disperse into a gas. Fermentation is used to produce alcohol from glucose. The glucose is produced by the hydrolysis of starch. The conditions needed are: a warm temperature, although this must not exceed 37 degrees Celsius & yeast to break down the sugars. Equation: C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 Pros: Renewable energy resources are used; simple equipment. Cons: Slow; produces impure ethanol; has to be in the batch process. The hydration of ethene is used to make alcohols by using fractions of distilled crude oil from fractioning columns. It is made in the presence of an acid catalyst, normally phosphoric acid, and it needs high temperature and pressure. Equation: C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH Ethanol is used in alcoholic drinks, such as beer, wine & spirits. It is also used as an industrial solvent, when mixed with methanol to make methylated spirits. Finally, ethanol can be used as a fuel substitute, in countries that have limited oil resources. Methanol can also be used in fuel, to improve performance & combustion in unleaded fuel. It can also be used as a feedstock in important industrial processes. However, be warned, methanol is highly toxic. In a primary alcohol, the carbon which carries the -OH group is only attached to one other carbon atom. Examples include ethanol, propan-1-ol & 2-methylpropan-1-ol. In a secondary alcohol, the carbon with the -OH group attached is joined to two other carbon atoms. Examples are propan-2-ol, butan-2-ol & pentan-3-ol In a tertiary alcohol, the carbon atom holding the -OH group is attached directly to three carbon groups. Tertiary alcohols are extremely hard to oxidise. Examples, 2-methylpropan-2-ol & 2-methylbutan-2-ol.