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Eudoxus of Cnidus
410 B.C. – 355 B.C.
Developed method of exhaustion, used multiple
interconnected spheres to account for retrograde motion.
385 B.C. – 323 B.C.
Student of Plato who built philosophy based on
observation, induction of general principles. Theory of
causes determined motion and material of celestial objects.
Aristarchus of Samos
310 B.C. – 230 B.C.
Determined the distance from the earth to the moon and sun
(correct method, incorrect results), and according to
Archimedes, thought that the planets revolved around the
Philolaus of Croton
470 B.C. – 385 B.C.
Defined the universe in terms of discrete and continuous
elements in proper proportions, and (following Pythagoras)
proposed that the earth is not the center of the
Eratosthenes of Cyrene
276 B.C. – 195 B.C.
Created a system of latitude and longitude, calculated the
circumference of the earth and tilt of earth’s axis, attempted
to calculate the distance to the Moon and Sun.
430 B.C. – 348 B.C.
400 B.C.
350 B.C.
300 B.C.
90 A.D. – 168 A.D.
190 B.C. – 120 B.C.
Student of Socrates who recorded his conversations or
dialogues. His dictum in the Timaeus requiring that all
celestial objects move in uniform circles constrained
astronomical models for nearly two millenia until Kepler
showed that planets move in ellipses.
450 B.C.
Claudius Ptolemy
Used geometric methods to create a calculatory model of
planetary motions using epicycles and deferent circles that
dominated western astronomy until Copernicus.
Described lunar and solar motions and eclipses, created a
star catalogue and stellar magnitude system (still in use).
250 B.C.
200 B.C.
150 B.C.
100 B.C.
50 B.C.
1 A.D.
50 A.D.
100 A.D.
150 A.D.
Row Label Ancient Mathematics
Greek Theories on Motions of the