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Transcript
Noncohabitating
Physical pleasure
Emotional satisfaction
 10% had only homosexual experience during any three-year
period between 16-55
 4% reported sex only with men since adolescence
 NHSLS studied three aspects of homosexuality
 Desire: same-sex sexual attraction
 Behavior: having same-sex sex
10%
9%
8%
7%
6%
5%
4%
3%
2%
1%
0%
Men
Women
 Identification
Sex since
puberty
 Lifetime male-male sexual contact (37%)
©©2006
2000David
DavidSchweingruber
Schweingruber
Identification
 Kinsey emphasized continuum of sexuality
Married
Different measures of homosexuality
Same-sex sex
appealing
Measuring homosexuality
Cohabitanting
Source: Michael, et al. 1994. Sex in America. Little, Brown.
Same sexattraction
© 2006 David Schweingruber
87.4% 84.8%
Sex since 18
http://www.iastate.edu/~soc.134
84.4% 75.6%
78.2% 71.0%
Sex in past 5
years
Oct. 11, 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Sex in past
12 months
The Social Organization of Sex/
Defining and Measuring Deviance
Percent "extremely" or
"very" satisfied with sexual
relationship
Sexual satisfaction by type of union
The 2002 National Study of Family Growth found higher rates of identification: 3 times for
women and 1.5 times for men.
Source: Michael, et al. 1994. Sex in America. Little, Brown.
©©2006
2000David
DavidSchweingruber
Schweingruber
Interrelations of components of homosexuality
Source: Michael, et al. 1994. Sex in America. Little, Brown.
©©2006
2000David
DavidSchweingruber
Schweingruber
Social control
Men (10.1%)
Women (8.6%)
Desire
59%
13%
6%
0%
1%
24%
1%
Behavior
22%
15%
Behavior
13%
Desire
44%
0%
Identity
2%
Social control:
various means by
which a society
encourages
conformity to its rules
and expectations
Identity
0%
Source: Michael, et al. 1994. Sex in America. Little, Brown.
©©2006
2000David
DavidSchweingruber
Schweingruber
©©2006
2000David
DavidSchweingruber
Schweingruber
1
Defining deviance
Crime statistics
 Deviance: behavior, belief or condition that violates social norms
• By defining what is normal, society defines what is deviant
 Origin of term is in statistics—“deviation” is the difference between the
value of a given case and the group average
 Sociologists began using “deviance” in 1950s to encompass four major
topics—crime and delinquency, mental illness, drug use/addiction, sexual
misbehavior
 Different approaches to studying deviance:
• Why do people commit deviant acts? (causation approach)
• Why are some people labeled as deviant and what are effects of label?
(labeling theory)
• Why do rules and punishments benefit some groups more than others?
(conflict theory)
• Why are some forms of deviance considered problems and others are not?
(social problems approach)
©©2006
2000David
DavidSchweingruber
Schweingruber
 Two major sources of crime statistics
• Uniform crime reports (FBI): based on reports from police
departments on reported crimes
• National Crime Victimization Survey: household survey of crime
victimization
 Limitations of crime statistics
• Some crimes aren’t measured at all (one goal of moral
entrepreneurs is to have their targeted form of deviance measured)
• The two major sources miss some crime
• Reported crime rate includes just eight index crimes
©©2006
2000David
DavidSchweingruber
Schweingruber
2