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By: Mary Helen, Charles, Claire
History of Geography
• The word geography was invented by the Greek scholar
Eratosthenes- He built off the work of Aristotle and
• “Geo” means Earth and “Graphy” mean to write
• Roman geographers: Strabo & Ptolemy
• Father of cartography: art and science of map-making
• 18th century, environmental determinism was founded:
the belief that the environment causes human
• Later, possibilism was created: landscapes are the
products of complex human and environmental
Location and Place
• Place: Description of a specific
point on the Earth’s surface /
human and physical features that
make it unique
• All inhabited places on Earth
have been given place names
Two types of Location
• Two Types of Location:
• Absolute: Location on the global grid /
• Lines of latitude (parallels) North & South of Equator
• Longitude (meridians) East and West of Prime
• Note: Prime Meridian runs through Greenwich,
England (Basis of Greenwich Time)
• Relative: Relationship to places around it
Site and Situation
• Site: Specific physical and
cultural characteristics of a place
such as terrain and dominant
• Situation: Location of a place
relative to physical and cultural
characteristics around it.
Region: Spatial unit or group of places that share similar and unifying
3 Types:
Formal (Uniform)
• Area that has a common cultural or physical feature
• Example: Marion County- shares a county government
Functional Region (Nodal)
• Area organized around a node or focal point defined by social or
economic function
• Example: Circulation of Lebanon Enterprise
Vernacular Region (Perceptual)
• A place that people believe exist because of their cultural identity
• Example: The American South
Distortion: Errors resulting from flattening or projecting
the Earth onto a flat surface
4 Properties of Maps:
(Cardinal and Intermediate)
Azimuthal (Polar)
The frequency with which something occurs in space
3 Types
• Total number of object sin an area
• Number of people per unit of area suitable for
• Number of farmers per unit area of farmland
2 Types of Concentration:
How the features are spread over space
Dispersed and Clustered
• Process by which a characteristic spreads across
space from one place to another over time
• The place where it originates is called the
• 5 Types of Diffusion
• Relocation
• Hierarchical
• Contagious
• Stimulus
Geographic Technology and Data
A. Geographic Information System (GIS):
A computer program that stores data and
produces maps through layering data
patterns over each other
B. Remote Sensing: The collection of info
from satellites
C. Global Positioning System (GPS):
Satellite Driven remote sensing to
determine exact location on the global grid
Random Things You Should Probably
Know For BINGO
• Distance Decay: The diminishing importance and eventual
disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its
• Globalization: Actions or processes that involve the entire world
• International Date Line: 180 Longitude. -When heading East the
clock moves back 24 hours -When going west the calendar moves
ahead one day
• Space Time Compression: Reduction in time it takes to diffuse
something to a distant place because of improved communication
in transportation
• Transnational Corporation: A company that conducts research,
operates factories, and sells products in many countries