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Transcript
8/6/2015
Elements of SQL
Data Definition Language
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Define Tables (Conceptual Level)
Define Views (User Level)
Extensions may define storage
Define Indexes
Grant Permissions
Add Column to table
Drop tables, views, indexes
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Data Definition Language (cont.)
• SQL‐2 Additions
– Primary keys
– Foreign keys
– Constraints
– Domains
– Database Schemas
Data Manipulation Language
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Insert data
Delete data
Update data
Query data
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Use of Language
• Casual use on line at terminal
• Embedded in standard programming language – Fortran, – Cobol, –C
• Embedded in specialized database programming language – PL/SQL, – Transact‐SQL
Use of Language, cont.
• Invoked via function calls to programming APIs:
– ODBC, JDBC
– PHP functions
– PERL DBI
• Invoked behind the scenes by applications created by GUI app builders – Oracle Developer
– Visual Basic
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