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Programming languages
Zuzana Brťková
What is programming language?
A programming language is an artificial
language designed to communicate
instructions to a machine, mainly a computer.
Programming languages can be used to create
programs that control the behavior of
a machine and/or to express algorithms
precisely.
Types of programming languages
The main types of these languages are
1) Object-orientation languages (Java, html,
php, C# ...)
2) Procedural languages (C, Fortran, Basic and
others)
3) Functional languages
4) Languages for logic programming
What is a difference?
The focus of procedural programming is to break down
a programming task into a collection of variables, data
structures, and subroutines, whereas in object-oriented
programming it is to break down a programming task
into objects that expose behavior (methods) and data
(members or attributes) using interfaces. The most
important distinction is that while procedural
programming uses procedures to operate on data
structures, object-oriented programming bundles the
two together, so an "object", which is an instance of a
class, operates on its "own" data structure.
C
•
•
•
Procedural language
Developed between 1969 and 1973
The language was designed to encourage crossplatform programming
• C has facilities for structured programming and
allows lexical variable scope and recursion, while a
static type system prevents many unintended operations
• Many later languages have borrowed directly or
indirectly from C, including C#,
Java, JavaScript, Python, PHP etc.
C#
• Object-oriented language
• It was developed by Microsoft within its .NET
initiative and later approved as a standard by Ecma
and ISO
• The name "C sharp" was inspired by musical notation
where a sharp indicates that the written note should
be made a semitone higher
• C# is an evolution of the C and C++ family of
languages
• C# is a language encompassing strong typing,
imperative, declarative, functional, generic and
component-oriented programming disciplines
Java
• Object-oriented language
• Java is specifically designed to have as few
implementation dependencies as possible
• Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun
Microsystems and released in 1995
• The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++,
but it has fewer low level facilities than either of them
• Java is one of the most popular programming languages
in use, particularly for client-server web applications,
with a reported 10 million users
C++
• Object-oriented language
• Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell
Labs
• It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it
comprises both high-level and low-level language
features.
• C++ is implemented on a wide variety of hardware and
operating system platforms.
• C++ is designed to be a statically typed, generalpurpose language that is as efficient and portable as C
Pascal
• Designed in 1968–1969 and published in 1970 by Niklaus
Wirth
• Named in honor of the French mathematician and
philosopher Blaise Pascal
• Pascal, in its original form, is a purely procedural
language and includes the traditional array of ALGOL-like
control structures with reserved words such
as if, then, else, while, for, and so on
• It is efficient language intended to encourage good
programming practices using structured
programming and data structuring
HTML
• HyperText Markup Language is the main markup
language for creating web pages and other information
that can be displayed in a web browser
• HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting
of tags enclosed in angle brackets, within the web page content
• The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents
and compose them into visible or audible web pages
• The first publicly available description of HTML was a
document called "HTML Tags", first mentioned on the
Internet by Berners-Lee in late 1991
PHP
• Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995,
the reference implementation of PHP is now produced
by The PHP Group
• Server-side scripting language designed for web
development but also used as a general-purpose
programming language
• PHP code is interpreted by a web server with a PHP
processor module which generates the resulting web page.
• PHP is now installed on more than 244
million websites and 2.1 million web servers
Thank you for your attention